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EESA06H3 (234)
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Chapter 11

Chapter 11 - Geologic Structures.doc

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Environmental Science
Nick Eyles

Chapter 11 Geologic StructuresStructural geology can be thought of as the study of the architecture of the Earths crust its deformational features and their mutual relations and originsStructural geologythe branch of geology concerned with the shapes arrangements and interrelationships of bedrock units and the forces that cause themWhat Causes Rocks to Bend and BreakTectonic forces move and deform parts of the lithosphere particularly along plate marginsStressa force acting on a body or rock unit that tends to change the size or shape of that body or rock unitForce per unit area within a bodyHard to measure stress in rocks that are currently buriedStrainthe change in size volume or shape or both of a body or rock unit in response to stressCompressive stressa stress due to a force pushing together on a body Common along convergent plate boundaries and typically results in rocks being deformed by a shortening strainRocks that have been shortened or flattened are typically found along convergent plate boundaries where rocks have been pushed or shoved togetherTensional stresscaused by forces pulling away from one another in opposite directionsTensional stress results in the stretching or extension of materialAt divergent plate boundaries the lithosphere is undergoing extension as the plates move away from one anotherBecause rocks are very weak when pulled apart fractures and faults are common structuresShear stressstress due to forces that tend to cause movement or strain parallel to the direction of the forcesA shear stress results in a shear strain parallel to the direction of the stressesShear stresses occur along actively moving faultsHow Do Rocks Behave When StressedRocks behave as elastic ductile or brittle materials depending on the amount and rate of stress applied the type of rock and the temperature and pressure under which the rock is strained
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