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EESA06H3 (234)
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Chapter 4

Chapter 4 - The Earth's Interior.docx

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Environmental Science
Nick Eyles

Chapter 4: The Earth’s Interior 4.1 Deep Drilling on Continents 4.2 Canadian Lithoprobe Project -“dancing elephants” What can we learn from the study of seismic waves? - Geophysics – the application of physical laws and principles to a study of the Earth - Seismic reflection – the return of part of the energy of seismic waves to the Earth’s surface after the waves bounce off a rock boundary - Seismic refraction – the bending of seismic waves as they pass from one material to another What is inside the earth? Crust – the outer layer of rock, forming a thin skin over the Earth’s surface - Felsic – rocks high in feldspar and Silicon – continental crust - Mafic – rocks high in magnesium and iron (ferric) – oceanic crust - Mohorovicic discontinuity (Moho) – the boundary separating the crust from the mantle beneath Mantle (670km) – a thick shell of rock that separates the Earth’s crust above from the core below - Upper mantle – diff from continental and oceanic crust, is most likely ultramafic rock (dense igneous rock, lack felderspar ex: periodite) - Lithosphere – the strong and brittle outer shell of the Earth, 70 to 125 more kilometers thick - Asthenosphere – a region of the Earth’s outer shell beneath the lithosphere, is of indeterminate thickness and behaves plastically – low velocity zone 4.3 A CAT scan of the mantle – seismic tomography uses earthquake waves, 4.4 Diamonds – A window into the mantle – diamond bearing igneous rocks - kimberlite pipes - Diamonds eventually breakdown to for graphite - First diamond mine in North America = Ekati mine near Yellowknife in NWT Core – the central zone of the Earth - P-wave shadow zone – the region on the Earth’s surface, 103-142 degrees away from an earthquake epicenter, in which P-waves from the earthquake are absent - S-wave shadow zone – the region on the Earth’s surface, any distance that is more than 103 degrees from the earthquake’s epicenter, in which S-waves are absent Composition of the core – core is made of metal not silicate, most likely iron (studying meteorites) The Core-Mantle Boundary – ultra-low velocity zone (ULVZ) – P wave velocities dramatically decrease - Convec
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