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Canada (158,147)
EESA06H3 (234)
Nick Eyles (205)
Chapter 1

Chapter 1 Notes

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Environmental Science
Nick Eyles

Chapter 1 - Introduction to Physical Geology and the Environment WHAT IS GEOLOGY? The study of the earth first known geological map was created by ancient Egyptians over 3000 years ago . The industrial revolution in north Europe created a growing demand for energy and minerals such as coal, limestone, iron and water. Earliest geological maps William smith 1815 th In the 17 century they believed that the earth was about 6,000 years old but now the age of the earth bas been determined to be at least 4,500 million years. The ever-changing nature of physical environments on planet earth (such as the positioning of the continents), together with the role of extraterrestrial processes (such as meteorite impacts), are seen as having largely controlled the evolution of the life forms. Moving Continents Alfred Wegener suggested the movement of continents. He recognized that todays continents have previously been clustered together in a large land mass but has been moved apart. Land Mass called Pangea Canadian geophysicist, J.Tuzo Wilson who in the early 70s was responsible for brining together several of the key elements of what we now know as plate tectonics theory. Time and Geology Geology involves vastly greater amounts of time, often referred to as deep time. Some geological processes occur quickly, such as great landslide or a volcanic eruption. These events occur when stored energy is suddenly released. Rapidly to a geologist may mean that within a few million years the hill will be reduced nearly to a plain. The rate of plate motion is relatively fast. If new magma erupts and solidifies along a mid-oceanic ridge (a giant mountain range that lies under the ocean), we can easily calculate how long it will take that igneous rock to move 1,000 kilometers away from the crest of the ridge. WHAT DO GEOSCIENTISTS DO? Exploration geologists may work for an exploration company looking for gold, silver, and other metals more recently for diamonds. The whole point of prospecting is to find something and then get it to the market before any else does. The location of geological resources is more important than ever, but at the same time the skills of the geoscientist are acquired to address additional issues such as mitigation of the effects of natural hazards and other environmental concerns. www.notesolution.com
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