Textbook Notes (363,063)
Canada (158,170)
EESA06H3 (234)
Nick Eyles (205)
Chapter 1

Chapter 1

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Environmental Science
Nick Eyles

Chapter 1: Introduction to Physical Geology and the Environment Geology from Greek geo and logos meaning study of the Earth First known geological map created by ancient Egyptians over 3000 years ago Late 18 century, Industrial Revolution in northern Europe created growing demand for energy and minerals Earliest detailed geologic maps published by Smith North America, geological mapping began in mid 19 century by Logan th Movement of continents on Earths surface suggested early in 20 century by Wegener o Todays continents previously clustered together in large land mass then moved apart, land mass called Pangea William Smith (Yellow Box) 1793, while conducting surveys for excavation of canal in Bath, Smith noted that regular succession of rock layers he encountered o As he toured other areas of England to investigate similar canals being dug, Smith compared rocks he saw with some of the successions he had observed near Bath 1799, outlined and coloured the distribution of geological features on map of local area around Bath Produced the first comprehensive geological map of England in 1815 Widely recognized as one of the founders of science in geology Sir William Logan (Yellow Box) Realizing that maps indicating coal-seam locations would benefit the coal industry, he developed a professional interest in geology His geological maps of South Wales were revolutionary in that they introduced the cross-section, a hypothetical vertical slice through the land By using maps, diagrams, and drawings, he created the first systematic layout of geology of Canada Alfred Wegener (Yellow Box) First suggested theory of continental drift in 1912 Proposed that supercontinent called Pangea, an assemblage of all the continents, existed more than 250 million years ago Pangea broke up into smaller continents that subsequently drifted apart to their present locations J. Tuzo Wilson (Yellow Box) Plate tectonics theory, transform faults and hot spots Ideas were first stimulated by his work on Canadian Shield, which showed the shield to be composed of a mosaic of terranes separated by long linear features that he interpreted as ancient fault lines Suggested that volcanic island chains, such as Hawaiian Islands, resulted from moving plate drifting over a stationary magma plume in the mantle Time and Geology Geology involves greater amounts of time deep time Earth at least 4.55 billion years old Fossils in rocks indicate complex forms of animal life existed in abundance on Earth for about pass 545 million years ago o Reptiles 230 million years ago o Dinosaurs evolved from reptiles and became extinct 65 million years ago www.notesolution.com
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