Textbook notes on Chapter 2

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Environmental Science
Jovan Stefanovic

Human Health and Environment Chapter 2 (Textbook reading): Air Pollution recognition of the relationship bw nonworkplace (community) air pollution and respiratory disease dates back to the first use of coal as a combustion source air pollutants caused serious illness & deaths among people w cardiopulmonary disease o Cardiopulmonary disease: a disease that involves both heart and lungs o Occurred in Meuse Valley of Belgium in 1930 Donora Pennsylvania in 1948 London in 1952 (in London, reached 4000+. Mortality mostly due to bronchitis, pneumonia and acute exacerbation of underlying cardiac and respiratory diseases) air pollution crisis worldwide 1. Air pollution has no boundariesnational borders bc: atmosphere is dynamic and always changing contaminants are transported (over thousands of miles), diluted, precipitated & transformed 2. primary emissions of sulphur oxides, nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxides, respirable particulates and metals (lead and cadmiums) in populated cities in Asia, Africa, Latin America and Eastern Europe due to uncontrolled industrial expansion, increasing motor vehicle numbers & congestion & pollution caused by fuels used for cooking & heating There is a relationship bw air pollution and wealth. Countries that have lots of poor people tend to have lots of air pollution (high levels of total suspended particulates because they rely heavily on coal) vs. wealthy people e.g. particulate levels in Beijing can reach over 1200mgm whereas US has only 150mgm 3 3. nations that have reduced the primary emissions from heavy industry, power plants, and autos, new problems have arisen from pollution by newer industries and from air pollution caused by secondary formation of acids and ozone high air pollution contributes heavily to the high mortality rates due to acute respiratory disease in kids under age of 5 or 28% of deaths in this age group (however air pollution also affects kids in developed countries too) Specific Air Pollutants Associated w Adverse Respiratory Effects Pollutant Sources Health effects Sulphur oxides, particulates Coal & oil power plants Bronchoconstriction, chronic bronchitis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) Carbon dioxide Motor vehicle emissions, Asphyxia leading to heart and fossil-fuel burning nervous system damage, death Oxides of nitrogen Auto emissions, fossil fuel Airway injury, pulmonary power plants, oil refineries edema, impaired lung defences Ozone Auto emissions, ozone Same as oxides of nitrogen generators, aircraft cabins Polycyclic aromatic Diesel exhaust, cigarette Lung cancer hydrocarbons smoke, stove smoke, Radon Natural Lung cancer Asbestos Asbestos mines and mills, Mesothelioma, lung cancer, insulation, building materials asbestosis www.notesolution.com
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