EESA10 Chapter 2.docx

3 Pages
167 Views

Department
Environmental Science
Course Code
EESA10H3
Professor
Silvija Stefanovic

This preview shows page 1. Sign up to view the full 3 pages of the document.
Description
CHAPTER 2  Whole communities were engulfed in air pollutants resulting in serious illness and death among individuals with cardiopulmonary diseases. These episodes happened in Belgium (1930), Pennsylvania (1948) and London (1952)  They were caused by air stagnation which resulted in increased concentrations of pollutants including sulfur dioxide and suspended particles  London was the worst case and mortality was due to bronchitis, pneumonia and acute exacerbation of underlying respiratory disease  Air pollution has no boundaries and contaminants are transported, diluted, precipitated and transformed  Primary emissions of sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, and carbon monoxide are polluting cities and towns in Asia, Africa, and America.  Relationship between air pollution and wealth: poorer countries had higher levels of total suspended particles than wealthier nations.  Indoor air pollution contribute to the high mortality rates for acute respiratory disease  Study table on pg 18 Sulfur dioxide and acidic aerosols Acute means short duration; chronic means long  SO2 produced by the combustion of sulfur contained in fossil fuels (coal and crude oil)  Sources: electric power generating plants, oil refineries and smelters  Nations like china greatly depend on coal  SO2 is a clear, highly water soluble gas and so it is absorbed by the mucous membranes of the upper airways with small proportions reaching the distal regions of the lungs  SO2 in atmosphere does not remain gaseous: undergoes chemical reaction to form aerosols  Prolong SO2 particulates in the air allowed the transformation into acid aerosols  Sulfuric acid with fossil fuel combustion (soot, fly, ash, etc) forms smog  Higher particle acidity increased bronchitis while higher levels of gaseous acids increased asthma, wheeze attacks, chronic wheezing, and asthmatic symptoms.  Aerosol acidity and respiratory problems have a positive relationship  Acute bronchoconstrictive effects of sulfur dioxide are well known: Inhalations of high concentrations of SO2 increase airway resistance in healthy normal volunteer  Patients with asthma are sensitive to the bronchoconstrictive effects of S02 and react to much lower levels  Exposed to elevated levels of SO2 leads to chronic airway obstruction Particulates  Particles suspended in the air after various forms of combustion or other industrial activity  Increases suspended particulates led to increased daily mortality  Increase in particulates of 100 led to a 4% mortality  PM10 contains particles<10 in diameter. An increase in particles of 10 led to a 0.68% increase in mortality  PM2.5 contains particles < 2.5 in diameter. They are fine particles and produced by combustion processes. They can penetrate deeply into the lung which larger particles would be trapped in the upper airway  Examples on PM2.5: coal combustion, crustal sources (dust) and motor vehicle exhaust  HRV (heart rate variability): measure of the cyclic variations of beat to beat intervals and instantaneous heart rate  Reduction in HRV associated with higher levels of PM2.5 and PM10. However, we don’t know if particulate air pollution has the same effect on younger kids  Deaths in kids from acute respiratory disease a
More Less
Unlock Document

Only page 1 are available for preview. Some parts have been intentionally blurred.

Unlock Document
You're Reading a Preview

Unlock to view full version

Unlock Document

Log In


OR

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


OR

By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.


Submit