Chapter 14 notes

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Environmental Science
Jovan Stefanovic

Chapter 14 Chemical KineticsNerosanth Selvarajah141 The Rate of a Chemical ReactionThe rate of a reaction describes how fast the concentration of a reactant or product changes with timeAB CD Rate of FormationC tRate of DisappearanceA tRate of disappearance is a negative quantity because concentration decreases with timeoThe concentration at the end of a time period is less than t was at the start of the period 142 Measuring Reaction RatesTo determine rate of reaction we need to measure changes in concentration over time Reaction rate is not constant the lower the remaining concentration of the reactant the more slowly the reaction proceeds Instantaneous Rate of Reaction is the exact rate of a reaction at some precise point in the reaction It is obtained from the slope of a tangent line to a concentrationtime graphInitial Rate of Reaction is the rate of a reaction immediately after the reactants are brought together143 Effect of Concentration on Reaction Rates The Rate LawRate Law Rate Equationfor a reaction relates the reaction rate to the concentrations of the reactants mnRate kAB Pg 578Term order is related to the exponents in the rate law The overall order of reaction is the sum of all the exponents mnRate constant k is the proportionality constant in a rate law that permits the rate of a reaction to be related to the concentrations of the reactants oits values depend on the specific reaction presence of a catalyst and temperature othe larger the value of k the faster a reaction goes order of the reaction establishes the general form of the rate lawthe appropriate units of kif reaction is first order in one of the reactants doubling the initial concentration of that reac
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