Textbook Notes - Chap 3

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Environmental Science
Jovan Stefanovic

Chapter 3 water quality and water resourcesDiarrheal deaths most due to waterborne infectious agents While the widespread use of oral rehyderation thearphy has substantially reduced the mortality associated with waterborne disease intensive efforts to provide improve water and sanitary infrastructure in developing nations have been less successfulGrowing evidence indicates that updating the means of disposal of human wastes improves human health to a greater extent than purveying clean water suppliesSources of waterDrinking water is obtained primarily from surface water such as streams rivers and lakes or from ground water through artesian or other types of wellsOther means of obtaining water include collecting rainwater desalinating seawater Surface water is in general more prone to contamination by both microbial pathogens and chemicals since it directly receives industrial and municipal wastewater and runoff from the landGround water usually less contaminated than surface water because the soil through which it proclates serves as a filterUses of waterMost water is used by toilets and then cloth washers showers faucets leaks other domestic and dishwasherSources of contaminationContaminants can enter drinking water by a variety of mechanism Many chemicals such as pesticides and fertilizers enter drinking water sources after being deliberately applied to the land and washing into surface or ground watersCan also enter water through moving through the soilOur methods of treating and distributing drinking water lead to some chemical being present within our drinking water supplies Sources of contaminants that discharge into receiving waters from a pope or other identifiable device are called point sourcesPoint sources include industrial wastes and sewage treatment plantsSources of contaminations that cannot be defined by discrete pipes or other devices are called nonpoint sourcesWater treatment processThe developed world reduced the burden of waterborne disease outbreaks by th implementing a process to treat drinking water in the late nineteenth and early 20century First water is pumped from its sources The next step involves adding a chemical coagulant Water with chemical contamination may need to undergo additional treatment at this stage such as activated charcoal or special ion exchange resinsBoiling water is the traditional method of water purification but since it requires substantial energy production
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