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Environmental Science
Mandy Meriano

EESA05 NOTES Lecture 1 - Hazards since 1947 - Deadliest: earthquakes and hurricanes - Key determinants in # of deaths: popn density and quality of infrastructure The great Sumatran-Andaman Earthquake - Seismic stations around the world recorded effects of the earthquake December 26, 2004 - This earthquake released as much energy as every earthquake on earth between 1976 and 1990 combined - The earthquake triggered a series of waves called tsunami – killed over 250 000 ppl - Economic losses due to natural disasters have increased exponentially since the 50s - Most expensive ones happen in the US Typical environmental hazards - Classical hazards include: earthquakes, volcanoes, landslides, floods, tornadoes, hurricanes, erosion, bolide impact - Risk assessment: we will learn how to tell whether we are about to buy or rent a house Hazard - Naturally occurring - Effects on human interests Risk - Probability of event occurring multiplied by impact on people and property Disaster - Effect of hazard on society o Property damage, injury, loss of life Catastrophe - Massive disaster some of the worst disasters are relative smalel events Magnitude and Frequency of Hazardous events Impact - Function of magnitude and frequency - Also influenced by other factors(climate, geology, vegetation, land use, popn) Magnitude-Frequency Concept - Inverse relationship between magnitude and frequency –x - M = Fe history of an area gives clues to potential hazards - Maps, historical accounts, climate, and weather data - Rock types, faults, folds, soil composition Hazards - May provide a benefit (rich soils near volcanoes) - Unknown liabilities if govn forces people to move - Increased popn pressure means more people are living in dangerous areas - Often there is a lack of understanding of the geological history of an area
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