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Chpt 3: Patterns of Urbanization.doc

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Andre Sorensen

GGRA03: Citites and Environments: (Part I: Patterns of Urbanization, Part II: Contemporary Urban Ecology) Patterns of Urbanization  Modern cities ideal: concrete built form conflicts with ideals of nature  Nature often considered as being ‘outside’ of cities th  19 century: growing public concern about the environmental hazards of industrial cities in Europe and North America  rapid industrialization (overuse of natural resources)  overcrowded housing (during the 19 century, London had the largest population in the world)  disease (cholera became global disease at this time, and other diseases became rampant during this time)  pollution (streets and nearby bodies of water were polluted by excess garbage and unused materials) Urban Public Health Movement:  1850s onwards  Political movement toward improving the welfare of city residents  Series of reforms to improve sanitation in order to decrease disease and improve quality of life in cities  Municipal (city) government investment in public infrastructure  Emergence of urban planning – land use zoning.  Development of factories towns – towns which had a large percentage of its workers working in a particular company. th Main responses to problems of the 19 North American/European city:  Redeveloping the central city:  “slum clearances”: redevelopment of poor, working class neighbourhoods:  There was an increase in political awareness of the lack of ‘natural’ space in cities.  Belief that more green space would cure the “ills of the industrial city”.  Exodus from Central city: Suburbanization  Public opinion that dense cities are unhealthy both mentally and physically  Development of new residential settlements away from cities with green spaces  ‘Anti-city’ sentiments began to emerge  Cities considered ‘un-natural’, and homes for the poor. o Example: Garden City  Ebenezer Howard (1850-1928) a prominent urban planner mentioned the concept in his book, “Garden Cities of Tomorrow”, which was published in 1898 • Plans for ‘garden cities’ outside of central cities. • Low density housing. • Separation of housing away from industry • Prototype for the 20 century suburb.  Based on the concept of the Three Magnets (where will people go?), and how suburbs are a combination of the positive aspects of both cities and country.  Characteristics of suburbs include: • single detached housing • private home ownership • private lots • automobile centred neighbourhood unit. • arterial roads • more access to green spaces  Emergence of the planned suburb base
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