Chapter 6 ▯ Urbanization in Historical Perspective (week 1 Reading)
Urbanization Concentration of human population in towns, cities, and metropolitan areas.
▯ The Three periods
• Urbanization can be divided into 3 periods
1) Earliest Cities (10,000 BC 1800)
o Villages and farms.
o World population approx. billion
o Cities rarely contained more than 10% of population
2) Urban growth began to accelerate (18002010)
o 50% of population lived in cities
o Urban population growth rate
o Scientific Revolution
3) Urban population no longer until the end of urbanization (2010 present)
o 7580% live in urban areas
o World population stabilizes to about 911 billion people
Cities used to hold approx. 10,000 people and be within a defensive wall.
Cities were “Walking Cities”, everything within walking distance of each other.
Babylon (300 BC) and Rome (200 AD) among the only expectations, they had large empires.
Technology or Scientific Revolution (1800) led to increase in income and therefore an
increase in population.
Greater population lived in cities
Turning point in urbanization
▯ From Malthusian to Modern Economics
Malthusian Economics – Economics of subsistence
Scientific revolution had no yet happened
Parents preferred to have more children with lesser education rather than less children with better
Modern Economic – Sciencebased technological advances and new forms of
Increase in incomes as well as return to education increasing specialization in trade. Urbanization went hand in hand with domestication or plants and animals during the agricultural
▯ Improvements in Urban Public Health
3 stages in urb