GGRB28 Ch8 notes

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Talar Sahsuvaroglu

GGRB CHAPTER 8 NOTES WATER QUALITY AND HEALTH Introduction Chapter will focus on importance safe water and sanitation for health More specifically it will look at some water borne diseases CHOLERA and SCHISTOSOMIASISThese diseases are particularly acute in regions of the developing worldHowever in the developed world there are gastrointestinal diseases that are gaining importance Finally the chapter will look at the contamination of water by chemicals and the contamination of water supplies by hazardous wastes All of the issues mentioned above have raised public concern and research efforts in both developed and developing worlds The research and information provided in the chapter is from a POSITIVIST background which seeks to employ large sample sizes to test hypotheses concerning exposure and outcome Important to note that through the information presented cannot secure the full understanding of association between disease illness and water quality without mentioning societal and structural determinants Water Borne Diseases CholeraDisease caused by the ingestion of the bacterium Vibiro cholera present in water contaminated by faecal matter Over 100 serotypes available of V Cholera two O1 and O139 which are responsible for the major disease epidemics Symptoms massive loss of water and salt leading to watery diarrhoea Bodily fluids are not replenished if depleted Bodily fluids can be increased through oral rehydration Leads to kidney and heart failure Cholera was the first disease shown by epidemiological methods to be water borne John Snow was the first person who established the link between cholera and contaminated water in 1854 It was first believed that cholera had existed somewhere else Robert Koch who later followed up on Snows work with microbiological research implicated that the bacterium played a major role in producing sanitary reforms that helped control the disease in the developed world STILL REMAINS TO BE A MAJOR CAUSE OF MORTALITY ACROSS THE GLOBEBacterium V CholeraSurvives best in moderate saline water where the temperature remains at 10 C for several weeks at a timeIt prefers to live in estuaries where the sea meets the river currentMainly resides in the gut of healthy humans who tend to travel a lot However it can be transported through other routes In the 1830s French soldiers transported cholera to Algeria Britain suffered five cholera epidemics during the course of the nineteenth century killing an estimated 130000 people During the same time India had lost 25 million peopleo Before 1817 there were large parts of India that werent heavily populated like today However the British forced compulsory resettlement into fixed villageso This disrupted the balance and did little to mitigate the effects of poor harvest Malnutrition contributes to the tendency of cholera because of the weakened immune system of the body
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