GGRC02H3 Chapter Notes - Chapter week 2: Nuclear Family, Antinatalism

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5 Jul 2018
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-Transition theory (theoretical formulation on the relationship between demographic
evolution and industrialization)  presented by Thompson  ; assumes that the
industrially developed nations underwent transition in fertility and mortality rates
which fueled their industrial development
Stages of the theory
o1. Premodern Society (pop. Balance is maintained b/c high birth/death rates)
o2. Rapid population growth (mortality rates are low, fertility rates are high)
o3. Mature stage of industrialization (pop. Balance is achieved b/c falling
birth rates removes “pressure” of stage 2  low birth/death rates produce
manageable rate of natural increase
problems w/ transition theory
oargued that it does not accurately explain what actually occurred  birth and
death rates did not fall as evenly and predictably as theory suggests
oit also cannot predict the situation confronting the current and future
industrializing nations
developing area patterns are not analogous to highly industrialized
nations
- theory assumes highly developed nations have an equilibrium of birth/death rate
charac. Of the 3rd stage  not accurate b/c baby boomers
- theory does not explicitly post how demographic factors set off the seq. of urbanization
and industrialization  does not address the demographic prerequisites of
industrialization, does not discuss the relationship between population change and
development
eg. Does pop. Cause industrialization or vice versa?
- Authors try to: present demographic generalization about transition theory: the
relationship between the historical decline in fertility rates and the concurrent
processes of urbanization and industrialization
Note: fertility rates did decline in the developmental histories of the industrialized
nations
Phase 1
-Consensus that pre-urban and preindustrial societies are/have been characterized by
relatively high birth/death rates  vague, assume that pop. Stability was achieved b/c
high fertility rates were offset by high mortality  not completely correct
2nd explanation: pre-urban and pre-industrial societies introduced certain social
behaviours that were tempered by purely biological processes; society exists below
the Malthusian brink (mechanisms like infanticide/late marriage help prevent
population pressure from being evident/problematic
Phase 2
- agriculture introduction = reduced mortality rates  lower death rate w/ more
agriculture = pop. Increases  this sets up the pre-conditions for urbanization
this idea is largely ignored by transition theory
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Document Summary

Transition theory (theoretical formulation on the relationship between demographic evolution and industrialization) presented by thompson ; assumes that the industrially developed nations underwent transition in fertility and mortality rates which fueled their industrial development. Balance is maintained b/c high birth/death rates: 2. Rapid population growth (mortality rates are low, fertility rates are high: 3. Balance is achieved b/c falling birth rates removes pressure of stage 2 low birth/death rates produce manageable rate of natural increase. Developing area patterns are not analogous to highly industrialized nations theory assumes highly developed nations have an equilibrium of birth/death rate charac. Authors try to: present demographic generalization about transition theory: the relationship between the historical decline in fertility rates and the concurrent processes of urbanization and industrialization. Note: fertility rates did decline in the developmental histories of the industrialized nations. Consensus that pre-urban and preindustrial societies are/have been characterized by relatively high birth/death rates vague, assume that pop.

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