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University of Toronto Scarborough
Global Asia Studies
Ruoyun Bai

Sept 17 Reading Notes The historical context of international communication Communication and empire Essential for imposition authority international trade and commerce EX. Greek empires used testament and inscription to report the communication Julius Caesar forerunner in Rome Empire Indian Emperor Myghal China Tang & Ching Traveler & traders Technology & globalization EX interchanges between Graeco-Roman and Arabia &India and China India-Persian Gulf- Mesopotamia-Mediterranean –Western Europe CentralAsia-China-Lindia-Arabic (Silk Route) 三大教的传播 Medium developed from the clay tablet of Mesopotamia-ancient Egypt & Greece Roman Empire 8 century paper 15th type printing by Iohann Guteberg 【 communication transform 】 16th Christianity’s Holy print in all major languages Latin culture spread by John Wycliffe(England) and Martin Luther(Germany) Languages become the main vehicle of communication for European Colonial power Portuguese Empire is one of the first to grasp the medium st nd 1 1557 Goa 2 Macao 1588 Industrial Revolution in Western European th Stimulus EX James Cook 18 longitude based on the Greenwich meridian Development of iron ship & engine Help Britain rival International trade and economic affairs cause the growth of international trade and investment need the demand of awareness Revolution and innovation EX transport established and accelerated European trade \ Colonial empires After 1850 Electric telegraph expand communication Samuel Morse 1836 telegraph ensure secrecy and code protection 1851 public telegraph allow to colonial office in India Importance of the technology improvements Algeria install the telegraph cause its colonization Crimean War notable in ‘The Times of London’William Howard Russell Irishman Civil War in U.S cooperative news among the U.S and European The first underwater telegraphic cablelink Britain and France 1851 The first transatlantic cablBritain and U.S 1866 ……… Undersea cable require huge capital investment <10% is government 1st Trans-Pacific cable completed in 1902 connection exist in 1873 nd 2 Trans-Pacific cable completed in 1903 link Japanby existing British cable Control over cable is important during wars Cable becomes the essential part in new imperialism Wars outcome the demand the new communication links New technology of the wireless telegraph meet 1901 Guglielmo Marconi first transatlantic telegraph transmission British Empire advantage Marconi’s monopoly 1906 Berlin Conference first multilateral agreements WW1 Dominance in British cable companies direct control Britain has advantage in the control of the copper and gutta-percha market e.x Empire develop the companies and distance in colonical countries 260000 kilometers half world France 44000 kilometers U.S companies challenge Britain’s supremacy And USA dominate the new technology of telephone Ex. Alexander Graham Bell 1877 production increase in USA 1885 AT&T head office of Bell system 1 international telephone calls made between Paris and Brussels in 1887 End of 19 century USA largest Western Electrical international network The era of news agencies Newspaper important role demand increase Follow the increasing demand among business clients newspaper industry development EX French Havas Agency 1835 German agency wolff 1849 1870 there companies divide the world British Reuter 1851 they are subsidized by their respective government By contrast Provision made the shared territories Reuters tend to dominate the Ring Combination in practice 1890 three companies signed new treaty for 10 years Havas gain South America and Indo-China major European agencies are based in imperial capital After WW1 monopoly from Association Press(AP found in 1848) in Latin America 1930s AP and UP(found in 1907) AP get to expand internationally Case study The advent of popular media 19 century expansion of printing presses and the internationalization of new agencies 1838 The Times of India found South East The Straits Times Singapore in 1858 1890 Japan Asahi Shimbun found 1890s rapid expansion 1 million in Britain Daily Mail 1896 Chinese nationalist leader Sun Yat Sen found Chung-kuo Jinpao 1899 India Mahatma Gandhi Yong India(Harijan) USA biggest international impact William Randolph Hearst New York Journal International News Service succeed in 1915 by King Feature Syndicate in 20 century Film industry Paris & Berlin 1895 Bombay-Buenos Aires WW1 European market found in France also in 7 countries and Turkey Brazil and USA Independent studios in 1909 and 1913 Hollywood film industry Popular music ‘His Master’s Voice “ Gramophone Company in most area 60% profit earn from oversea Advertising companies end of 19 century EX J. Walter Thompson 20 century important in international communication 1901 His Master’s Voice 1948 A diamond is forever Coca-Cola 1970 It’s a real thing Nike’s 1988 Radio and international communication 1902 transmission of the human voice Western countries first American business thinks that radio might be used in British-dominated international cable links They are thinking the undersea cable Britain Germany France USA and Russia major users of radio International Radiotelegraph Union agree to sign in London in 1912 Because of the lack mechanism so this is disadvantage of smaller and less developed countries Two distinct type of national radio broadcasting emerged In USA Radio Act both in 1927 British Broadcasting Corporation(BBC) non-profit public World Radio Conference
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