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HISA04H3 Chapter Notes - Chapter Textbook : Arabian Peninsula, Ecumene, Babur


Department
History
Course Code
HISA04H3
Professor
Daniel Bender
Chapter
Textbook

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The Development and Establishment of Worldwide Connections (Notes)
By: Osterhammel
Chapter 3
Forms of social integration
Empires - Empires were vasts political systems that were characterized by an emperor (a
monarch and a hierarchy of rule), a military apparatus, and that the empire’s center was the
center of all known civilization.
An empire was basically an organization of centralized coercion and therefore never a
"network”.
Religious Ecumenes
Religious ecumenes - A general geographic area that all share the same religion. A religious
ecumene usually consisted of numerous political units and despite sharing the same religion,
they didn’t always get along. Two sets of characteristics guaranteed religious stability within a
religious ecumene: the gravitation toward holy centers, namely, pilgrimages (often over long
distances), and the widespread commitment to certain rules governing ritualistic and daily life.
The study of holy scriptures also helped to create cohesion within a religious ecumene.
Long distance trade
Long distance trade - Long distance trade has formed long lasting connections between
communities all across the globe, which has seen the transfer of people, ideas, technology, and
artwork. An example of long distance trade is the silk trade between China and the
Mediterranean region.
Mass long distance migrations - Mass prehistoric migrations of people to new uninhabited lands
such as the prehistoric migration of individuals across the ancient Atlantic land bridge to the
Americas.
Self contained military and economic centers
Around around 800 AD, the various regions of the Arabian peninsula were all cohesively
brought together by the “Ummah”, a community of Muslim believers, despite political
fragmentation. At the same time, there was the Han Dynasty in China and an empire in India.
These powerful military and economic centers were mostly self contained with military
expansion and thriving internal trade and commerce.

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Another powerful military and economic center was the Mongol Empire which spanned most of
Asia. The Empire allowed for the freedom of long distance trade and interaction with Europeans.
Despite the far-reaching impact of the Mongolian empire, it did not contribute directly to the
development of worldwide structures. The Mongols did indeed open up spaces and
opportunities, but they themselves were at best parasitical in their treatment of the political and
cultural institutions that they came across. There was hardly a case in which some sort of
constructive impulse emanated from Mongolian rule, comparable to powers spearheading
globalization later in the modern period.
After the succession of the Mongols, around the seventeenth century, China, Japan and other
Asian powers became isolated again. Despite internal religious conflict within Europe and the
Middle Eastern regions, these areas remained relatively open to foreign trade in comparison to
their Asian counterparts.
Large multiracial empires in the Middle East open to trade and economically influenced by their
surroundings
Large multiracial empires were revived in the Middle East and Europe that were controlled by
large military apparatuses and controlled by monarchs. These empires remained open to long
distance trade and their economy was influenced by their surrounding neighbors. In other
words, integration continued to advance through long-distance trade, which became
increasingly vulnerable to the economic cycles affecting the entire Mediterranean region.
Examples of such empires included the Ottoman empire founded in 1500.
Territorial states
Western Europe - During this same period in western Europe, states were consolidating as a
result not of conquest from outside but of the evolution of medieval monarchies. These differed
from the multiracial empires in that they were religiously and ethnically homogeneous. England,
France, and Spain represented best this type of "territorial state"; in the early eighteenth century
the kingdom of Prussia also moved up into this class. One particularity of Europe was the new
type of integration that resulted from the great crisis of the seventeenth century, known as the
Thirty Years' War, in which the "system" of independent states made its own rules. Peace could
not be forced upon a region by a warlord; it had to be created by consensus instead.
Militarized Crown Capitalism (Portuguese) and the various factors that helped this become a
reality
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Militarized Crown Capitalism (Portuguese) - Several years after Vasco De Gama sailed around
the Cape of Good Hope to access India, the Portuguese established militarized trading outposts
all over Africa and Asia. With this, the gateway to Asia was open to Europeans for good.
Artillery! - The proliferation of the firearm accompanied the expansion of many empires in
Eurasia, including the Ottoman Empire, European colonial expansion, and even the Chinese
Ming Dynasty.
Examples also include: German and Hungarian cannoneers helped the Turks conquered
Constantinople in 1453, and artillery was becoming decisive in battles everywhere, such as in
1526 when the Mughal conqueror Babur defeated the army of the Sultan of Delhi. One of the
major factors leading to the conquest of Mexico in 1519-21 was that the Spanish were armed
with muskets and cannons.
White man’s politics - The destruction of indigenous political structures, which began
immediately after the discovery of America in 1492, or the expulsion of native peoples into the
"wilderness," meant that the newcomers to America rarely had to make any compromises with
them. Politics in the New World were "white man's politics." European settlers brought with them
their customs and institutions, languages and religions, and founded neo-European offshoot
societies. The prerequisites for this approach were created in the sixteenth century; by the
seventeenth century such societies had crossed the threshold to irreversible stability nearly
everywhere.
Germs, new plants, new animals - The Europeans introduced new life forms into America.
Unknowingly, they brought germs of infectious disease against which the indigenous
populations had no immunity. Among the many factors that facilitated the European conquest of
the continents, none was as important as the disastrous smallpox epidemic that decimated the
native population. Plants and animals also crossed the Atlantic in both directions; flora and
fauna changed in Europe as well as in the Americas. Similar to what was later experienced in
Australia during the eighteenth century, the New World now found itself connected to a
Eurasian- African sphere, thousands of years old, in which certain biotypes flourished. At the
same time, the Old World profited from the wealth of biological diversity in the Americas and the
domestication talents of its original inhabitants.
Printing Press enabled a quicker spread of information
Printing Press - In European civilization, the invention of the printing press with moveable type
made it possible to quickly and broadly publicize reports in Europe on the newly discovered and
colonized areas overseas and, vice versa, to disseminate the rapidly growing pool of information
accumulated by the European "scientific community" as far away as European ships could sail.
This constituted an important advantage for Europeans, because Gutenberg's technology made
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