GLOBALIZING - one child policy.docx

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22 Apr 2012

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- nowdays, local population control policy was increasingly centered on
providing high-quality services for rural citizens to cover a variety of issues
such as childbearing and child rearing and informed options about
contraception, abortion and women’s reproductive health
- population control efforts in rural china have been an integral part of the
state’s modernization project since in the early 1970s and they have equally
widely been criticized as notoriously harsh/severe
- to facilitate its pop control effort across the vast expanse of rural areas, the
chinese state has constructed a malleable rural identity, an image of the
Other that is always seen as lacking something good and hence needing the
state’s incessant guidance, discipline and efforts at civilization
- positioning rural subjects as deficient in regards to the state’s discourse of
modernity, the Chinese state positions itself as invariably progressive,
responsible and promising in its quest to legitimize its hegemonic population
policy and thereby discursively transform peasants, especially women, into
docile instruments of its modernity project
- 1962-1970: China saw a net increase of 170 million ppl with an average total
fertility rate of 5.91 children per woman
- after the cultural Revolution, state leaders began to recognize that such rapid
population growth was incompatible with the nation’s planned economy
- On July 8 1971 > state council released Decree 51 > states tht henceforth
mankind should not let anarchism dominate human reproduction; they also
need birth planning
o Proclaimed: By 1975, the nation’s annual population growth rate
would be reduced to around 10 per thousand in cities and more than
15 per thousand in rural areas.
o So birth policies increased the legal age fro marriage, specified
minimum birth intervals, and required couples to bear no more than
two children
- Characteristic of the late Maoist era, the state claimed the slowdown of the
local population growth rate as a great success of the Maoist ideology of class
struggle movement
- 2 shape peasants’ reproductive practices, the birth control campaign was
said to demolish old ideas and foster new prevailing customs
- 1978: a burgeoning population was further diagnosed by the post-Mao state
as a national chronic illness, impeding the realization of 4 Modernizations:
o industry
o agriculture
o national defense
o science and technology
- the post-Mao state became increasingly obsessed with controlling its
population growth rate and a more rigorous birth control program became a
fundamental national policy
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