Textbook Notes (280,000)
CA (170,000)
UTSC (20,000)
History (80)
Chapter

Week 10 Meridian notes


Department
History
Course Code
HISB31H3
Professor
Neville Panthaki

This preview shows half of the first page. to view the full 2 pages of the document.
1. Sun Yatsen’s Three Principles of the People by Sun Yatsen
Sun Yatsen (Sun Zhongshan, 1866 – 1925) is not only heralded as the father of Chinese revolution, but is among a tiny number of
political activists who are revered in both the People’s Republic of China and on Taiwan, in the Republic of China
Sun was born to a peasant family in China, but spent much of his early life abroad studying medicine and becoming involved in political
organization to overthrow the Qing Dynasty (1644 – 1911)
while in Tokyo in 1905, he founded the Revolutionary Alliance (Tongmenghui), and after the Revolution of 1911 toppled the Qing, Sun
briefly became the provisional president of China
the Revolutionary Alliance became the Nationalist Party (Guomindang or Kuomintang) and garnered considerable popular support until
the new president, Yuan Shikai (1859 – 1916) had one of the Nationalist leaders killed and Sun fled to Japan
during the ensuing warlord era (1916 – 1927), Sun Yatsen prepared the Nationalist Party and its army in southern China to unify the
nation, and even entered into an alliance with the fledgling Chinese Communist Party in 1923
when Sun died of cancer, Chiang Kaishek (1887 – 1975) became Nationalist Party leader, and he was deeply suspicious of Communists
Sun wished to unify China under Nationalist Party leadership, and he had to galvanize support for his plan
the Three Principles constituted the core of Sun’s philosophy—the third principle, translated here associalism, is also translated as the
people’s livelihood”, a less politically charged term that makes it far more acceptable in Taiwan
2. Mao on Peasant Movements by Mao Zedong
no man has had a more profound impact on the Chinese people in the 20th century than Mao Zedong (1893 – 1976), a founder of the
Chinese Communist Party (CCP) and later, its most commanding leader and ideologue
Mao was born to a relatively well-off farming family in Shaoshan, Hunan, where he received a traditional Confucian education until he
left the village as a teenager to pursue further education in the provincial capital of Changsha and then the national capital of Beijing
it was in Beijing that Mao found himself immersed in the vibrant and radical intellectual movement that would later generate the CCP
despite his voracious appetite for books and periodicals on history, politics, philosophy, and economics, Mao remained deeply ambivalent
about the role of intellectuals in creating a new and revolutionary Chinese society
his own country roots and the disdain with which some intellectual activities treated him cemented Mao’s conviction that knowledge
acquired from books had to be tested by experience
as young Communist Party activist in 1920s, Mao became inspired by potential of China’s enormous farming population, particularly
poorest peasants—as many of his comrades worked to organize labour in urban centers such as Shanghai, Mao was drawn to countryside
Mao admired Sun’s revolutionary ideals, but detested Sun’s successor, Chiang Kaishek, who mistrusted communists and turned on them
violently in spring 1927 despite having entered into a Kuomintang-CCP alliance several years earlier
Chiang and the Kuomintang became Mao’s arch enemies
www.notesolution.com
You're Reading a Preview

Unlock to view full version