Tutorial Notes 1

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2 Jan 2011

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x Industrial revolutiontechnological advances (steam engines), division of Europe by progress, profits from
imperialism helped finance revolutions, raw materials, labour
o Division of Europe by progress—North vs. South, West vs. East—Britain, France, Germany vs. Italy, Belgium
o Countries like Germany and France possessed natural resources for themselves
o Rural vs. urban Æ shift from people from the rural areas to the cities in order to look for work, decline of cottage
industry (1 product is made in 1 household or many households and sold to the city), breakdown of labour, men
were first to move to the cities, women and children followed as well
o Education becomes a marker of progress, but also a means of instilling colonial desire
o Italy literacy rates were lower than France, Germany
Northern Italy had more progress and southern Italy was more agricultural based still
Germany had a shift in political system to Chancellor
In France, there was a shift in monarchy to liberalism after the French Revolution, but still there were many
problems after as the people still did not want the Church to have too power, but the Church had allies in the
form of autocratic people, which finally meant that nothing worked out finally
Industrial revolution was late in Germany, but when it did happen Germany increased productivity
exponentially which worried France
o Colonies—India, Japan, African countries (Nigeria, Congo, South Africa), Australia and New Zealand, Canada,
Hong Kong, Brazil
o Rise of consumerismway Europeans shaped themselves as consumers rather than just workers or neighbours
Conspicuous consumers—showing off wealth by spending wealth as consumers
Colonies were encouraged to use products that they produced, which was later used by abolitions to show
off things such as cannibalism
x 20th centurycolonialism, WWI, WWII, political changes (monarchy Æ liberalism, democracy)
x Direct vs. indirect control
x Imperialism
o sugar in Brazilraw materials used in making in refined sugar are sugar cane and beets; Brazilians were trying
to tap into the US market, but they also wanted the Brazilian market; made many political moves and paid the
workers very little, without reinvesting the money in the colony
o India—some argue that British colonialism helped India advance, but the progress was just enough to make
people feel like they were progressing, but not enough to make the colony take over Britain
o Coffee—slaves were used first, but then European (Italy, Portugal, Spain) and Japanese immigrants came
Work is tedious as it takes 7 years for the tree to grow
Pay was very little, profit was high
Many people agreed to work on coffee plantations in exchange for land or equipment or housing
Only heads of households were paid, even though entire family was involved
By rejecting singles, families brought their children, which meant that the next generation also worked on
the plantations
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