Tutorial 2 Notes

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2 Jan 2011
Scramble for Africa
x Berlin Conference
x re-drawing of the maps of Africa
x forced migration and merging of people/tribes/populations in Africa
x imperial expansion with Britain leading
x Belgian Congo Æ King Leopold
x Rwanda—Boer War
o identity cards (categorizing, identifying, separating)
o restriction of mobility
o large scale violence (death increases)
x colonial administration
x socio-economic effects
x indirect vs. direct rule
x South Africa as British colony
x German expansion
x British established it as colonial head, by military, economic, and standard of rational because they are all of sudden
calling for the abolishment of slave trade
x abolition of slave trade (UK)
Civil War and America
x Monroe Doctrine
x westward expansion
x north vs. south
o slave labour concentrated in south, making up 1/3 population, due to plantation and agriculture
o north had only about 1% slaves in their population because they were more industrial
o circulation of slaves—profit vs. labour)
x Abraham Lincoln said in Canada that slavery was needed and he never condemned it really
x Black leaders movement—Booker T. Washington, W.E.B. DuBois, Marcus Garvey
x imperialist (economic) vs. security/defence
o in America, it was put forth that imperialism was important for security/defence
o Monroe Doctrine said that the US was against European imperialism in US backyards
x America would need naval power (Pacific and Atlantic), however most important was the Panama Canal because the
Panama Canal was a connection between the Pacific and the Atlantic oceans, which was lucrative economically
(charging fees to pass through it) as well as military-wise
x many of the takeovers, such as Cuba and Hawaii, were profitable for security and defence because the Americas could
then attack any ship and protect their borders
Mahan basically talked about the expansion of United States and the Monroe Doctrine. He feels that the United States needs
to have a “special interest” in the Western Hemisphere because it needed to protect itself and the Western Hemisphere
through sea power. Mahan feels that the Monroe Doctrine will create a “great sea power”. Mahan was supporting the
thought that gaining and maintaining American sea power was important because the US was one of the biggest countries in
the world that was the least effected by the European conquests. Yet, the Europeans might try to colonize US again, which
meant that if the US wanted to save themselves they would have to increase and maintain their sea power. Mahan
continually justified American control of the Western Hemisphere and especially of the Panama Canal.
Racially belong—social Darwinism
Seems a bit pompous—thinks too much of himself and the Americans
The Interest in Sea Power, Present and Future
1. What areas of the world does Mahan believe the United States should control?
Mahan believes that the United States should control the Caribbean and South America. He further asserts that the US had a
“special interest” in the Western Hemisphere that it must protect through sea power. He also justified American control of
the Panama Canal.
2. How does Mahan connect his proposed policies to the Monroe Doctrine (1823)?
Mahan states that the Monroe doctrine finds it logical and inevitable outcome in a great sea power, which is exactly what
Mahan wants to create a “great sea power”.
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