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9 Jan 2011
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x Spivak—colonialist writer
Legacy of the Mutiny
x Author: Thomas R. Metcalf
x Position: important scholar
x Thesis:
o The violence of the mutiny challenged these liberal ideas, and after 1857, colonial ideologies became much more
focused on preserving what many felt were India’s traditional practices.
x Key terms and arguments:
o massacre of Kanpur
o mutiny explained—what caused the mutiny
o hostility towards Muslim community
o Lord Canning
Press Act of June 1857: subjecting newspapers to censorship
Arms Act: restricted the carrying of weapons to anyone holding licences and it was made applicable to all
classes of the population—British and Indian
x Visual: flag of India and Britain
Interwar Years
x Weimar Germany—scepticism about the government not doing anything; able to accept authoritarian governments
o attempted uprising by the Social Democrats—Spartacus uprising in Luxembourg and Liebknecht
o fear that the Social Democrats could be gaining power and fear from the Russian Revolution
x Britain, France, and US—same conditions as in Weimar Germany
o Ireland is part of the British Empire and they are trying to break free
o the British are not letting the Irish break free from the empire
o it is the birth of the IRA—Irish Republican Army—deemed as a terrorist group by the British government
o there are problems of two religious systems in Ireland: the Catholics and the Protestants
o the US lent a lot of money to Britain and France during the war
o internally, there are some periods of rising economy, but than the Depression hits
x The Depression—unemployment, physical damages to infrastructure, loss of population
o in Weimar Germany, there was hyperinflation during the Depression
x France after WWI had 1 French for every 3 Germans—they had lost a lot of the working population
x passive resistance—in Germany, the coal miners didn’t participate in the war and didn’t produce anything either, so the
French could not take anything away in reparations
Totalitarian Systems
x Italy and Fascism
o the papal state is still in power, but less so, with the rise of fascism
o Italy is divided into two states: richer Northern Italy and agricultural Southern Italy
o Mussolini’s rise to power was quick and easy
o use of media and propaganda—radio, newspapers, word-of-mouth, posters, clubs, mass gatherings Æ becomes
hugely theatrical, and is the power of persuasion and intellectual, psychological warfare
x Hitler and Mussolini
o Hitler was a charismatic leader, who kept power to himself
o Mussolini was always trying to please everyone
o Mussolini didn’t take over all power, giving power to other people as well to show himself as a good person
x Fascist Parties in Europe
o there were fascist parties in Germany, Italy, Britain, France, and the US
o however, in Britain, France, and the US the fascist parties were supported
o in Germany and Italy, the fascist parties were very highly supported
o in Germany and Italy, Hitler and Mussolini came across as a leader who had a solution to every problem
o the people wanted someone who could help them get out of the Depression, and at that time, Hitler and
Mussolini came across as the leaders who could help them get out of the Depression
o it was a transnational development
o Germany and Italy are younger countries compared to the rest of the world (Germany in 1871), which could be
another reason that they were more susceptible to fascist parties
x Crumbling Peace
x Spanish Civil War
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x WWII
League of Nations
x the US wasn’t part of it because the Congress hadn’t ratified it
x Germany later became a part of it
x Locarno Treaty—Germany—British see it and are happy with it, French see it and think somethings wrong
x the League had no military of it, they had no real power, and their decisions were not imposing
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Document Summary

Thomas r. metcalf important scholar: the violence of the mutiny challenged these liberal ideas, and after 1857, colonial ideologies became much more focused on preserving what many felt were india"s traditional practices. N key terms and arguments: massacre of kanpur, mutiny explained what caused the mutiny, hostility towards muslim community, lord canning. S press act of june 1857: subjecting newspapers to censorship. S arms act: restricted the carrying of weapons to anyone holding licences and it was made applicable to all classes of the population british and indian flag of india and britain. N britain, france, and us same conditions as in weimar germany. N the depression unemployment, physical damages to infrastructure, loss of population in weimar germany, there was hyperinflation during the depression. N france after wwi had 1 french for every 3 germans they had lost a lot of the working population.

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