Tutorial 10 Notes
x 4 definitions and 2 essay questions
x definition questions will be similar to midterm
x cumulative, but with a heavier emphasis post-midterm
x the definitions can be used in the essay questions as well
x at least 5 – 10 points for each definition—answer the when, where, why, who, what, how questions
WWII and Its Consequences
x Nazi Germany
o Pearl Harbour
o atomic bomb
x Soviet Union
x British colonies’ independence
WWI, WWII, The Aftermath, Decolonization
Places People Years Events Other
x Germany, Italy &
x Vichy France
x Manchuria, China
x Stalin & Lenin
x Marx & Engels
x Sun Yatsen
x Mao Zedong
x atomic bomb
x concentration camp
x Treaty of Versailles
x League of Nations
x possible questions
o Why did Japan side with Germany instead of Britain during WWII?
Russia—Germany on the west and Japan on the east Æ two-front war
Japan was against the British because they were stationed on land that Japan wanted and because of
British colonies that Japan wanted
o What led to the breakdown of fascism in Italy?
Germany much more unity in terms of ideological belief, while Italy had disparity between ideology, and
between the North (industrial) and the South (agrarian)
o Explain the emergence of Mao and communism in China.
o The questions in the syllabus are good study questions and questions that can appear on the exam
Tutorial 10 Guiding Questions
1. What were the consequences of WWII for Europe?
The effects of WWII had far-reaching implications for most of the world. Many millions of lives had been lost as a result of
the war. Germany was divided into 4 quadrants, which were controlled by the Allied Powers—the US, Great Britain,
France, and the Soviet Union. The war can be identified to varying degrees as the catalyst for many continental, national
and local phenomena, such as the redrawing of European borders, the birth of the UK’s welfare state, the communist
takeover of China and Eastern Europe, the creation of Israel, and the division of Germany and Korea and later of Vietnam.
In addition, many organizations have roots in WWII, for example, the United Nations, the World Bank, the World Trade
Organisation, and the International Monetary Fund. Technologies, such as nuclear fission, the computer and the jet engine,
also appeared during this period.
A multi-polar world was replaced by a bipolar one dominated by the two most powerful victors, the US and Soviet Union,
which became known as the superpowers.
The European Union grew out of the European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC), which was founded in 1951 by the 6
founding members: Belgium, the Netherlands and Luxembourg (the Benelux countries) and West Germany, France, and
Italy. Its purpose was to pool the steel and coal resources of the member states, and to support the economies of the
participating countries. As a side effect, the ECSC helped diffuse tensions between countries which had recently been
enemies in the war. In time this economic merger grew, adding members and broadening in scope, to become the European
Economic Community, and later the European Union.
Because the League of Nations had failed to actively prevent the war, in 1945 a new international alliance was considered
and then created, the United Nations (UN). The UN was also responsible for the initial creation of the modern state of Israel
in 1948, in part as a response to the Holocaust.
The UN operates within the parameters of the UN Charter, and the reason for the UN’s formation is outlined in the
Preamble to the UN Charter. Unlike its predecessor, the UN has taken a more active role in the world, such as fighting
diseases and providing humanitarian aid to nations in distress. The UN also served as the diplomatic front line during the
Cold War. The biggest advantage the UN has over the League of Nations is the presence of world superpowers such as the
US and Russia, for the League had little actual international power because of the absence of these nations.
One of the social effects which affected almost all participants to a certain degree was the increased participation of women
in the workforce (where they took the place of many men during the war years), though this was somewhat reduced in the
decades following the war, as changing society forced many to return to home and family.
According to historians the advancing Red Army had left a massive trail of raped women and girls of all ages behind them.
Between several tens of thousands to more than 2 million were victims of raped, often repeatedly. This continued for several
years. As a result of this trauma East German women’s attitude towards sex was affected for a long time, and it caused
social problems between men and women. Russian authorities dispute the event.
The German soldiers left many war children behind in nations such as France, which were occupied for an extended period.
After the war, the children and their mothers often suffered recriminations. The situation was worst in Norway, where the
“Tyskerunger” (German-kids) suffered greatly. However, today that factor is not present in Norway.
The casualties experienced by the combatant nations impacted the demographic profile of the post war populations. One
study found that the male to female sex ratio in the German state of Bavaria fell as low as 60% for the most severely
affected age cohort (those between 21 and 23 years old in 1946). This same study found that out-of-wedlock births spiked
from approximately 10 – 15% during the inter-war years up to 22% at the end of the war. This increase in out-of-wedlock
births was attributed to a change in the marriage market caused by the decline in the sex-ratio.
In the military sphere, WWII marked the coming of age of airpower. Advanced aircraft and guided missiles (developed later
in the war) made the battleship, once the queen of the world’s oceans, and fixed fortifications such as coastal artillery
obsolete. While the pendulum continues to swing in this never-ending competition, air powers are now a full partner in any
military action. The war was the high-water mark for mss armies. While huge conscript armies were seen again (during the
Korean War and in several African conflicts), after this victory the major powers relied upon small highly-trained and well-
equipped militaries. Perhaps most important of all, WWII ushered in the nuclear war, with the dropping of the first atomic
bombs on the Japanese of Hiroshima and Nagasaki in 1945.
2. Explain the raid decolonisation (rapid exit of Britain from India, Palestine).
In 1900, India was part of the British Empire; but by the end of 1947, India had achieved independence.
For most of the 19th century, India was ruled by the British. India was considered the jewel in the crown of the British
Empire. Queen Victoria had been made Empress and the British had a major military presence in India.
Indian nationals had no say in central government and even at a local level their influence on policy and decision making
In 1885, educated middle class nationals had founded the Indian National Congress (INC). Their aim was to get a much
greater say in the way India was governed.
In response to this development, the Morley-Minto reforms were introduced in 1909. Morley was the Secretary of State for
India and Lord Morley was Viceroy of India. Their reforms lead to each province in India having its own governor and
Indian nationals were allowed to sit on the councils which advised these governors.
After 1918, nationalism within India intensified. This was probably due to 2 reasons:
1) Many educated nationals in India were far more satisfied with the Morley-Minto reforms. White Englishmen still
dominated India and there had been no real decrease in their power or increase in national power. The INC wanted
a lot more.
2) Woodrow Wilson had stimulated the minds of many people with his belief in national self-determination—i.e. that
people from a country had a right to govern themselves. The whole concept of national self-determination
undermined the basic idea of the British Empire—that the British governed this empire (or people appointed by the
British to do the same). For national self-determination to fully work, India would have to be governed by the
Indians living there.
As early as 1917, Britain had toyed with the idea of giving India a measure of self-government: “the gradual development of
self-governing institutions with a view to the progressive realisation of responsible government in India as an integral part
of the British Empire”.
In 1919, the Government of India Act was introduced.
This introduced a national parliament with two houses for India.
About 5 million of the wealthiest Indians were given the right to vote (a very small percentage of the total population).
Within the provincial governments, ministers of education, health and public works could now be Indian nationals. A
commission would be held in 1929, to see if India was ready for more concessions/reforms.
However, the British controlled all central government and within the provincial governments, the British kept control of
key posts of tax and law and order.
Many Tory MPs in Britain were against the whole idea of giving anything whatsoever to India in terms of self-government.
They had two complaints about the whole idea:
1) If you gave India some form of self-rule, where would it end?
2) Would it start the process that would lead to the break-up of the British Empire?
The reforms were introduced very slowly and their spread throughout such a large country was equally as slow. This
angered many as there was a general belief that the British were deliberately stalling on introducing these reforms to ensure
their continued supremacy in India.
Riots did break out and the most infamous was at Amritsar in the Punjab where 379 unarmed protestors were shot dead by
British soldiers based there. 1200 were injured. This incident shocked many in India but what caused equal outrage was the
British reaction to Amritsar—the officer commanding British troops at Amritsar, General Dyer, was simply allowed to
resign his commission after an inquiry criticised his leadership during the riot. Many national Indians felt that he, and others
in the army, had got away very lightly. The more radical Indians felt that the British government had all but sanctioned
murder. As a result of Amritsar, Indians rushed to joint INC and it quickly became the party of the masses.
“After Amritsar, no matter what compromises and concessions the British
might suggest, British rule would ultimately be swept away.”
The most vocal opponent of the idea of some form of self-rule for India was Lord Birkenhead whole was Secretary of State
for India from 1924 to 1928. With such an opponent, any move to self rule was very difficult at best, and probably
impossible in reality
In India, the 1920s saw the emergence of three men who were to have a huge impact on the future of India: Jawaharlal
Nehru, Mahatma Gandhi, and Muhammad Jinnah.
Gandhi persuaded many of his followers to use non-violent protests. They had sit-down strikes, they refused to work, they
refused to pay their taxes etc. If the British reacted in a heavy-handed manner, it only made the British look worse;
essentially, the British would come across as bullies enforcing their rule on the bullied. However, there were those in India
who wanted to use more extreme measures.
Part of the 1919 Government of India Act stated that a commission would be established after 10 years to assess whether
India could/should have more self-rule. This first met in 1928—the Simon Commission.
This commission reported in 1930. There wee no Indians on the commission. It proposed self-government for the provinces
but nothing else. This was unacceptable for the INC, which wanted dominion status, granted immediately.
During the time the Simon Commission reported, Gandhi started his second civil disobedience campaign. This included
Gandhi deliberately breaking the law. The law in India stated that only the government could manufacture salt. After a 250-
mile march to the sea, Gandhi started to produce his own salt. This produced a violent clash with the British authorities and
Gandhi was arrested.