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Department
History
Course
HISB31H3
Professor
William Nelson
Semester
Fall

Description
European exploration and expansion: - Europeans always believed that Africa was a storehouse for precious metals - Marine technology was very helpful to Portuguese in terms of finding new routes to other continents through water - They also used some help from ancient Greeks and also had help from Muslim mariners who shared their experience of Africa and the Indian ocean - Chinese invention of gun powder helped them, the ottomans and also Christians in order to conquer different continents or nations. - English king won the battle against French with less than 10,000 men in 1415, and by 1492, the Spanish crown amassed a huge force of 60,000 soldiers - Africa and other islands proved to be far more than just storehouses for metals since those islands were the main locations where sugar cane could be grown – Portuguese established over there, built their fortresses and ports. - Started exploiting African slave labor from their mainland. Madeira, Canary, and Cape Verde archipelagos in particular were main fertile soils and where there would be rain fall. - This started to benefit Spain and Portugal in building sizeable plantations in their first formal colonies o First Portuguese to reach the Indian Ocean, Vasco De Gama(1469 – 1524) – he wasn’t famous until the extraordinary voyage commanding four ships around the cape of Good Hope. - Sailed straight for the Malabar cost in southern India – one of the most important areas for trading in 1498 - Portuguese traded for the sake of their crown; however, Vasco Da Gama roughed up everyone so all of the people knew about it and they’d spread the news. - However, back to London, he lost more than half of his crew The Atlantic World: - New technologies helped European expansion, hut the diseases that they carried with them made the difference - Europeans were able to conquer America, but all of it resulted in the shortage of labor and that is why started importing slave labors from Africa - Africa became the third corner in a triangular world order - This trade and emerging Atlantic Ocean system enriched the Europeans. They had the access to all the precious metal of the America - Not very glad about it, Columbus wanted to voyage into the Ocean Sea to find more direct routes to Asia (china and Japan) - Even though Columbus didn’t intend to find the America, but he accidently stumbled upon it; however, they didn’t realize the value of it until after a generation - Columbus found Hispaniola(Present day Haiti and the Dominion Republic) - He was looking for gold and he found that – he ruled it for a while, but was taken away from him Two Empires: 1. The Aztec: - This empire was ruled by one person and consisted of around 25 million people which later on became the new Mexico. They were not prepared for any kind of war or attack and did not expect it from any other empire since other empires were very weak compared to them. - It was basically consisted of a number of small states ruled by a Monarch – they used to capture warriors and torn their hearts out, kind of like sacrificed them to God. - Soon after, news started spreading that they are seeing moving mountains which in real were European ships. - Hernan Cortes, a former law student from Spain was inspired by Columbus - Aztec didn’t master in killing because they used to fight to capture, not to kill unlike Europeans because Europeans did not want their enemies alive, so they would rather wipe them off. - What led to this result was i) they weren’t used to fir at that large scale warfare, a lot of other empires wanted to end them and were at Europe’s side on this and also Europeans had advanced weapons. Also the main factor would be two diseases that killed them: Measles and Small pox. 2. The Incas: - Unlike Aztec, their empire had the population of 4-6 million people. - It was internally divided, already, that when Spanish people arrived, their leader, Francisco Pizaro attacked with 600 men by trapping the Insac leader and their shields didn’t work in front of Spanish guns and horses The Columbian Exchange: - Spanish came to the Americas for gold and silver, but they learnt about new crops that were grown in the Americas, corns and Potatoes, they would exchange wheat, sugar cane and grapevine for Potatoes and corns – explains the Columbian Exchange – movements between Europeans and Americans of previously unknown plants, animals or people. - Also with the exchange, they brought diseases which killed almost 90% of Indians population Sugar Plantations: - As Silver concept was widely known to everyone in the Americans, along with it emerged the price of Sugar and became the most valuable export from the Americas - Sugar flowed from Brazil and the Caribbean, spices from Southeast Asia, textiles from India, silks from China and increase amount of silver from The Andes or Mesoamerica - New world was enriched with wealth and power in a westerly direction - Spain and Portugal started facing new competitor – initially England and France. Economic and political effects of Global commerce: i. Mercantilism: - Transformation began when the extraction and shipment of gold and silver – made Brazil the world’s largest producer of that metal at that time. - Increase in global trade enriched some regions and disabled others which provoked rivalries between nations - Sugar and Silver were two main commodities of world trade - Americas had sugar cane, tobacco, indigo and rice grown in their fertilized soil - Silver helped in quickening the pace of global trade and sugar transformed European diet - Tooth decay became a leading cause of death for Europeans - Mercantilism assumed that overseas possession existed to enrich European and motherlands – European grew rich over time - Mercantilist system required alliance between a state and their merchants - Mercantilist understood all about politics and economy and that merchant is needed to have their interests protected and that monarchs can rely on them to enrich the state The Slave Trade and Africa: - Even through slave trade began in mid-15 century, human exports originally started in seventeenth and eighteenth century - Before European’s arrival, the slave trade was mainly across east Africa to Indian ocean - Merchants were enriched as the slave trade soared; however, they were not involved in capturing them Trade and Culture: - In 1500, world’s most dynamic cultures were in Asia - China and Muslim empire – spice and luxury trade flourished - Rulers had successfully established political stability and centralized control of taxation, law making and military force. - It involved recruiting people from different kinds of backgrounds - European argued that their race is superior to all others - They used art to represent their culture - Even though global trade unified the world regions, all of them still had their own ways which represented their individuality - They mapped their geographies and wrote their histories according to their traditional visions of the universe Culture in Islamic World: - Muslim empire was divided into three empires, Ottoman, Safavid and Mughal empire - Rulers supported education and building projects while elite produced books, artworks and luxury goods - Cosmopolitanism – cultural pattern prevailed within each empire - Even though three of them shared the same faith, each developed their own form of Muslim culture i. Ottomans: th - By the 16 century, Ottomans were enjoying a rich culture which reflected diversity - Blend of ethnic, religious and linguistic elements exceeded any of the previous Islamic empire - They achieved cultural unity and its system of administrative law - They took young boys and trained them as house recruiters, or military men - They had a very sophisticated educational system - The value that Ottomans placed in education and scholarship was evident in the saying that an hour of learning was worth more than a year of prayer - They also had interest in European works of science - They were not interested in literature or music - They had deep faith in their religion, also they were obsessed with tulips ii. Safavid Culture: - In Persia – wasn’t as long-lived as Ottomans - Built a mixed political and religious system that represented a Shiite vision of laws and soci
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