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University of Toronto Scarborough
Neville Panthaki

1. Coffee by Steven C. Topik Latin America, particularly Brazil, leading producer of coffee, where it was grown on both large estates (fazendas in Brazil) and small farms planted, tended, and harvested by family farmers, free labour, and slave labour; and it was an agricultural and industrial process capital intensivetrees take about 7 years to yield beans, requiring considerable investmentand labour intensive since beans need great care in picking th th 19 and early 20 centuriescoffee was leading export of nearly half countries of Latin America and important in number of others tied together archaic and bourgeois, slave and free, proletarian and intellectual, arduous toil and frivolous leisure coffee was introduced into Brazil by a European colonial powerPortuguese interests of Portuguese crown together with conditions within Brazil dictated continued use of slaves initial form derived from combination of international availability of African bondsmen and reluctance of European immigrants, history of social acceptance of slavery, and thck of a domestic alternative because of internal resistance Brazils agricultural boom began to fizzle in early 19of a recession in world economy burst of European and North American demand for coffee as their economies recovered from the Napoleonic Wars redoubled Brazils reliance on export economy and stimulated its craving for slaves by far largest importer of African bondsmen and last country in Western world to abolish slavery when emancipation finally arrived in 1888 decision to force slaves to till land and pick beans had formidable consequences for Brazil on one hand, it made Brazil worlds greatest coffee producer; Brazil had the largest railroad network, by the time slavery was abolished, next to India, outside of Western Europe and North America, of which two-thirds was in coffee-growing provinces abolition of slavery in 1888 created one of the most abrupt and through transformations of a labour system in history rather than employing freedmen and free Brazilians, states attracted almost a million Italian, Portuguese, and Spanish immigrants to plantations by 1914 transformation was so rapid that slaverys end did not harm coffee economy at all, instead, Brazilian coffee exports ballooned five-fold in 2 decades after Golden Law of abolition was passed decision to turn to immigrants derived from internal struggles within Brazilresistance by Brazilian freedmen refusing to work long hours and refusing to allow wives and children into fields; resistance by other peasants preferring to occupy own plots rather than working for plantation owners colono labour systemcentral work unit was family; only head of household was paid; family might tend 5000 trees (about 15 acres); little integration or specialization; provided colono about 40% of monetary income; during harvest time and occasionally at other times, paid for day work, accounting for 25% of monetary income; most of total income came from work as peasant; subsistence may have constituted 70% of remuneration; colono sold own corn, beans, and livestock, accounting for 33% to 40% of earnings; could and did move about; ultimate choice of leaving Brazil altogether slaves in Brazil were especially cheap because of proximity of Africa, volume of trade, and size of existing Brazilian slave population 2. Sugar in Brazil by Peter L. Eisenberg massive importation of African slaves into Brazil from 1500s through 1800s wasthesult of labour requirements of sugar plantations sugar plantations formed heart of politics and society until emergence of coffee as Brazils largest export in 19 during late 19 century, Pernambuco sugar industry led Brazil in exports, exemplified problems of national industry well, and experienced two kinds of difficulties: falling prices and stiffer competition Brazilians failed to overcome these difficulties and their industry stagnated, deteriorating export revenues first indicating predicament falling sugar prices, especially after 1860, reduced returns in early 1870s to level of 1850s in 1880s access to US market spurred export growth, but by 1890s sugar exports were again in serious trouble negative trends in export trade hurt industry because foreign markets absorbed over of Pernambucos sugar moreover, consequence of such adverse turns were magnified by Brazils high dependence upon imported goods, which required foreign exchange earned by selling abroad and falling foreign exchange rage after 1851 only compounded problem this decline in foreign exchange rate had 2 contrasting effects: (1) benefited sugar producers because it enabled them to sell foreign currency earned in exports for increasing amounts of milris, (2) it hurt importers, for whom foreign exchange became more expensive sugar producers were exporters and importers, since nearly all capital equipment, as well as many of consumption goods, came from abroad exchange rate falls did not compensate for sugar price falls and growing European beet sugar industry cause many of Pernambucos problems beet sugar producers invaded and conquered world market; cane sugar producers, who had enjoyed over 90% of world market in 1840s, had access to less than 50% of world demand by beginning of 20 beet sugar squeezed Brazil out of European markets and to replace English markets, Brazilians exported to USA; but even there Brazils position was tenuous; sales to US climbed rapidly in 1870s, and by end of Empire the US had replaced Great Britain as Brazils principal foreign market Brazilian domestic market offered only outlet for producers unable to meet foreign competition in Second Empire, Pernambucans sold between 15 and 20% of their sugar to home consumers vast majority was refined branco variety, for 3 reasons: (1) Brazilian consumer, like European, demanded white sugar on table; (2) since imperial Brazil had no large refineries, the planters themselves had to transform mascavado into white sugar; (3) imperial government imposed import taxes on foreign refined and crystallized sugars, which frequently had protectionist effects Brazilian planters, and particularly Pernambucans, could attribute their difficulties to relatively few causes export crisis was clear product of beet sugar boom, which drove down prices and pre-empted traditional markets www.notesolution.com
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