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Grenville chapter notes

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Neville Panthaki

1. The Selborne Memorandum by William Waldegrave Palmer, Earl of Selborne Lord William Waldegrave Palmer, second Earl of Selborne, was appointed British High Commissioner in South Africa in 1905 unlike his predecessor, Alfred Milner, Palmer had considerable sympathy for largely agrarian Afrikaner population of Transvaal and Orange Free State he opposed Milners policy of Anglicization through immigration, and supported move toward responsible government for South Africa Palmer is best known for his memorandum of 1907, which ostensibly focused on railroad consolidation but ultimately laid out a road map for bringing together South Africas various colonies Selborne Memorandum is seen as signalling an end to so-called Cape liberalism with its emphasis on equality before the law there is the educated native, whose aspirations must be regarded with wise sympathy, and there are tribes still in the stage of barbarism and between these extremes there are many grades of development both tribal and individual coloured populationnot native in above sense, having strong infusion of white blood, containing in ranks many educated and valuable citizens in whom work of civilisation is already accomplished, many others in a more backward state, to all whom the whites must manifest the desire to render friendly aid in their upward path primary function of Imperial Power is to protect from foreign invasion the frontiers of all the countries united under the British flag duty of raising, equipping and controlling the fleets and forces necessary for purpose to supplement and support local military resources of each part of the Empire rests indeed with the Government of the United Kingdom, but this merely points to the fact that institutions of the Empire are still imperfect organisation of a South African force which can be raised suddenly and moved swiftly to any part of the country implies in itself a federal union of some sort, but unless it is to be as ineffective as allied forces usually are, any defensive organisation common to South Africa means that it must be subject to some common authority answerable to South Africa as a whole question of defence is secondary problem, mere adjunct and consequence of primary problem of native policy its separation into independent parts is fatal to success from outset such separation meansdivision of national strength in all its forms; division of purpose and plan; different policies, yielding different results, which, sooner or later, must come into contact and conflict with one another all experience goes to show that those administrations will differ and that different policies applied at same time in different parts of same country, to same races, members of which are in constant communication with one another, must together defeat object at which each severally aims general result is sure to be something utterly unlike what any one of them was intended to produce, and proceeding from policies which are inconsistent and causes which are uncontrolled will be accidental if not disastrous in its effects 2. from Red Rubber by E.D. Morel E.D. Morel was born in Paris, but as a young man moved to England and became a naturalized citizen of Great Britain he worked as a clerk in a Liverpool shipping firm, who had a shipping contract with the Congo Free State (the Central African territory under the direct control of Belgiums King Leopold II and his investors) because of his knowledge of French, Morel was sent to Belgium to oversee the shipping records relating to the Congo, where he gained access to information that showed the Free State to be an overwhelmingly exploitative enterprise, even in comparison to other colonial ventures in 1900, Morel began a campaign against King Leopold and the Congo Free State, subsequently becoming a full-time journalist, publishing articles about the Congo in numerous newspapers and rallying the public to his cause Red Rubber was widely read and had a significant impact on public opinion with Great Britain and the US and because his campaign framed its critique of the Free State in terms of humanitarianism rather than anti-imperialism, even those who endorsed the colonial project could support Morel groundswell of support for his cause was so great that in 1903 the British House of Commons passed a resolution decrying the Congo Free State in 1908, two years after the publication of Red Rubber, Belgium annexed the Congo, severed King Leopolds ties to its governance, and place the territory under the control of the Belgian Parliament hostage-houserecognised institutions of Upper Congo; inside, men, women, and children (chiefly women) are cramped and suffocated, unkempt, grovelling in filth and squalor; half-starved, wholly starved at times official cannot even resign because the administration does not admit it; if he insists and leaves his station, he can be prosecuted for desertion; any case, he cannot get out of the country alive, for the routes of communication, victualling stations, etc. are in the hands of the Administration, and escape in a native canoe cannot happen either, because every native canoe, if its destination be not known and its movement chronicled in advance from post to post, is at once suspected and liable to be stopped, for the natives are not allowed to move freely about the controlled water-ways hostage-house is one of most effective assets of rubber slave-trade these hostages are here because their husbands or their brothers have failed to trap the weekly antelope required as part of the tax for the white mans table or their supply of fresh fish is short or the rubber has been of bad quality and insufficient in quantity husbands will require their wives, and they will trap the antelope, they will find the fish, and they will improve their rubber supply 3. Prayer for Peace by Lopold SdarSenghor Senghor was born in the French colony of Senegal in 1906, the son of a well-to-do landowner won a scholarship to the Sorbonne in Paris, where he met fellow intellectuals AimCsaire andLon Damas together they developed concept of negritude, which emphasized the importance of an over-arching African identity and culture Senghor fought in French all-African unit during WWII, and was briefly imprisoned by Germans www.notesolution.com
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