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HISB31H3 (24)
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Department
History
Course
HISB31H3
Professor
Neville Panthaki
Semester
Winter

Description
1. The Interest in Sea Power, Present and Future by Alfred Thayer Mahan Rear Admiral Mahan (1840 1914) was officer in US Navy and leading theorist on matters relating to American naval power and American foreign policy as commandant of Naval War College, Mahan taught future President Theodore Roosevelt and almost certainly influenced Roosevelts thinking Mahan focussed almost exclusively on sea power, which made him eccentric in a nation observed with westward expansion in his lectures, Mahan emphasized that historically, nations that controlled the sea lanes were able to dominate other nations economically and militarily Mahan thought that US should also follow this course, developing its naval power rather than being concerned with control of North American land in this selection, Mahan argued that the US must be dominant in the Caribbean and in South America; he further asserted that the US had a special interest in the Western Hemisphere that it must protect through sea power; he also justified American control of the Panama Canal (the Isthmus) his arguments presaged the standard American defence of the Spanish-American War (1898) Isthmusits canal and its approaches on either side, links eastern side of American continent to western as no network of land communications ever can; US has asserted special interest in it; in present, US can maintain its claim; in future, US can perform its duty, only by the creation of that sea power upon which predominance in the Caribbean must ever depend 2. Roosevelt Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine by Theodore Roosevelt Theodore Roosevelt (1858 1919) became President of the US in 1901 after assassination of President William McKinley a Republican, Roosevelt was known as a reformer within the party and sought to bring partys ideals into 20 Roosevelt worried through much of his presidency over tendency of European powers, especially Germany, to interfere with Latin American nations Roosevelt feared that continuing European interventions in the area would threaten US commercial and military interests in his State of the Union address in 1904, Roosevelt laid out foreign policy that came to be known as Roosevelt Corollary to Monroe Doctrine expanding on Monroes 1823 warning for European powers to stay away from the Americas, the Roosevelt Corollary advocated the use of force to stabilize Latin American countries undergoing internal political and economic turmoil that threatened US commercial interests Roosevelt intended the Corollary to apply to recent crises in the Dominican Republic, Venezuela, and Cuba, but later he used it to justify intervention in Panamanian affairs to seize control of land that later became the Panama Canal the Corollary became a justification for other American interventions in Latin America until President Franklin D. Roosevelt formally promised less intervention in 1934 3. Slavery and Freedom: The American Paradox by Edmund S. Morgan one of most important and most complicated problems faced by historians of early America is development of African slavery in British colonies of North Americacolonies whose roots are deeply entwined with ideals of liberty and freedom Edmund Morgan, professor emeritus of early American history at Yale University, addresses this paradox of American slavery and American freedom in his Presidethial address to Organization of American Historians in 1972 th using sources on topics ranging from late 16lorations of Walter Raleigh and Francis Drake to Thomas Jeffersons late 18 century ruminations on slavery and liberty, Morgan explores how Virginia landowners fear of their restless indentured servants (an unease that intensified with Bacons Rebellion in 1675 1676) resulted in the shift toward slave labour this captive workforce provided the planters with the economic and political stability necessary to guard against threats to their individual liberty and the framework of society, making slavery, in Morgans view, neither exceptional nor hypocritical rise of liberty and equality in US was accompanied by rise of slavery two such contradictory developments were taking place simultaneously over long period from 17al paradox of American history free ships make free goods was cardinal doctrine of American foreign policy in Revolutionary era but goods for which US demanded freedom were produced in very large measure by slave labour American reliance on slave labour must be viewed in context of American struggle for separate and equal station among nations of earth at the time colonists announced their claim to that station they had neither arms nor ships to make the claim good; they desperately needed assistance of other countries, especially France, and their single most valuable product with which to purchase assistance was tobacco, produced mainly by slave labour so largely did that crop figure in American foreign relations that one historian has referred to activities of France in supporting Americans as King Tobacco Diplomacy, a reminder that position of US in world depended not only in 1776 but during span of long lifetime thereafter on slave labour paradox is sharpened when looking at Virginia, state where most of the tobacco came from Virginiaat time of first US census in 1790 had 40% of slaves in entire US; produced most eloquent spokesmen for freedom and equality in entire US: George Washington, James Madison, and above all, Thomas Jefferson the freedom that Jefferson spoke for was not a gift to be conferred by governments, which he mistrusted at best; it was a freedom that sprang from independence of individual: man who depended on another for his living could never be truly free Jefferson had two phobias: passionate aversion to debt and distrust of landless urban workman who laboured in manufactures Other Information Thomas Jefferson (April 13, 1743 July 4, 1826) was third President of US (1801 1809), principal author of Declaration of Independence (1776), and one of most influential Founding Fathers for his promotion of ideals of republicanism in US www.notesolution.com
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