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Tutorial 9 Notes

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Neville Panthaki

Interwar Crisis N League of Nations N USSR non-aggression pact Differences Between World War I and World War II WWI WWII N soldiers only N civilians casualties N trench warfare N total warfare (prisoners of war) N more of a conventional war N use of better technology N fought only in the battlefields N psychological warfare (media, propaganda) N planned response to external conflictincident N Hitlers unplanned recapturing of lost territories N fought on the Western Front N fought on the Eastern Front N end of German and Russian monarchies N no monarchies, fascist governments only N code of honour only attack soldiers N just attack no code of honour N European continent focus N global scale war N France power greater no surrender N France power lower surrender in a few weeks N US power low N US power greater (world powers change) Raul HilbergThe Bureaucracy of Annihilation N the Germans financed the concentration camps through demanding money in the Slavic communities N they called it the resettlement plan, where they told the Slavic communities that it was a one-way ticket N sometimes the Germans also terrorised and grabbed properties from property owners N one end of the spectrum is the resistance not even doing their job N the other end of the spectrum is the fullest cooperation or volunteerism going beyond their job N if more and more of the volunteers are put in place, then people start to follow the example and are eager to participate N this will motivate other people to participate and there is an increase in the killing machine of Jews N Hilberg is pointing out the decentralized and compartmentalized system that was in place N this could lead to people saying that they did not know about the Holocaust and that their job was leading to death N there were people in the Nazi system that were trying to overthrow government, resist, and assassinate Hitler N there was a movie made on Sophie Scholl university student resisting and then she was hung with her brother N some resisters used their own propaganda anti-propaganda to influence people N the railroads were used to transport the Jews across Germany and Poland 1 to 2% died on the railroads N the railroads were similar to the death ships that were used before to transport prisoners N there were other similarities to the Holocaust the genocide in Rwanda and Darfur N a system just doesnt die when the war is over, it continues on authors say that it migrated into something else 1. Why does Hilberg think we should not see the Holocaust as unique? Hilberg says that much in the destruction of the Jews is familiar and even commonplace in the context of contemporary institutions and practices. Basically, the Jews were destroyed as a consequence of a multitude of acts performed by a phalanx of functionaries in public offices and private enterprises, and many of these measures, taken one by one, turn out to be bureaucratic, embedded in habit, routine, and tradition. 2. What does Hilberg mean when he says there was an inner logic to the Holocausts operation? What are examples of this inner logic at work? Hilberg means to say that while the Holocausts operations were not planned, Hitler always wanted to go through the Holocaust. He knew that there would be a right time and that the start of the Second World War was the perfect time for the Holocausts operations. A decree defining the term Jew, expropriations of Jewish property, the physical separation and isolation of the victims, forced labour, deportation, gassingsthese were not random moves, instead, each was a stage in the development. The Holocaust was decentralized, organized, and compartmentalized. The complete Holocaust was Fordism. It was decentralized and organized in that it was anarchy within a bureaucratic system. It was not just a top-down approach, but the acceptance of volunteerism and contribution from bottom-up. One example was the building of the trains. People producing trains would say that they did not know that their trains were being used to transport trains, but there were maps that showed where the railroads led. Some Germans started sabotaging their own camps and helping the Jews. They would begin passive resistance. www.notesolution.com
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