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HISB93H3 (1)

HISB90H3 Week 14 Review Notes.docx

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University of Toronto Scarborough
William Nelson

Lecture 14: The Unification of Italy; Tsarist Russia; The Dreyfus Affair Readings:  Merriman, History of Modern Europe, 650-660, 705-725, 736-740.  Émile Zola, “J’accuse”  National Unification: Italy and Germany (and the Dreyfus Affair) o The Romantics and the Technocrats o The Romantic: Garibaldi o The Technocrat: Cavour  Mazzini in Rome o In 1849 radicals in Rome proclaimed a republic o Mazzini moved in to seize the opportunity o He made the most of publicity o His was a romantic politics of publicity  Mazzini and the Press o The writers became propagandists for Roman republic and Mazzini against Pope Pius IX o Tuckerman called the Pope, “the skeleton at freedom’s feast.” o George Sand wrote to Mazzini: “All that you have sought for and accomplished is just. The whole world feels it, even those wretches who believe in nothing, and the whole world will say so in the loud voice when the time comes...national communications will not perish. They will overcome this collapse, so we should be patient; do not cry over those who are dead, do not complain about those who must still die.”  Strength of Foreign Feelings o Alexander Andrews, wrote Garibaldi from Bengal, India of his desire “to join the banner of liberty under the heaven conferred destroyer of Tyrants.” o American surgeon William Holcome wrote Garibaldi offering the service of himself and his wife: “We will both come to any place you may mention and work heartily for your cause which is an immortal one.”  Risorgimento o The Technocrat: Camillo di Cavour o Trained in math and engineering, versed in economics, business, and scientific agronomy o Highly skilled and well-rounded in the technical fields  Cavour the Technocrat o Cavour’s scientific agronomy can be a metaphor of his difference from the romantics. o Things like crop rotation, land drainage, and mechanization of farm machinery are not sexy, but they are effective in increasing yields and making agriculture more efficient. o Technocrats like Cavour were the legitimate heirs of the Enlightenment rationalism. o Remember Cavour’s boast that he liked to plot political problems on graphs in order to understand them!  The Technocratic Spirit o Cavour was the type of post-Revolutionary figure that Edmund Burke had bleaks visions of: with the French Revolution “the age of chivalry is gone. That of sophisters, economists, and calculators has succeeded; and the glory of Europe is extinguished forever.” o The great German sociologist Max Weber would eventually blame the technocrats (and their lesser cousins, the bureaucrats) for helping trap Europe in the “iron cage” of rationality, completing the long process of the disenchantment of European civilization.  Necessity of Two Types of Leadership o Both the romantic and the technocratic were nece
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