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Franca Iacovetta

HISC A Nation OF Immigrants NotesthWeek 2 Great Migration Era 19 Cent British Immigrants Case Study of Irish100 000 Irish immigrants came to Canada in 1847 caused by Great Potato FamineGrowth of IrishCatholic immigration to Saint John and Portland brought expansion of Orange Order oInstitutional nativist response to unwelcome settlersoAnti Catholic racist appeal defends Protestantism against ICRejection of immigrants due to culturalreligious diff symbolic struggle to protect Protestant jobs against ICsOrange Order New Brunswick 10 000 members succeeded bc large supply of LoyalistsNew Englandnon Irish immigrants who shared same feelings1845 1849 intense violenceScott W See NB Orangemen claimed famine immigration was due to Vatican wanting to expunge Protestantism violence increased but factors such as overcrowding poverty hunger were also responsibleOrange Order attracted many Canadianborn New Brunswickers due to anti Irish and anti Immigration attitudesDepressed economy of 1840s had unemployed native labourers competing w immigrants for the same low paying jobsProtestant constabularyjudiciary would consistently arrest and convict ICs for disturbing the peaceThe 1849 Riot bw Catholics and Protestants signaled end to social conflict bw them but small skirmishes continued for years NB improved economic env After mid century contributed to demise of collective conflict by alleviating competition bw natives and immigrantsFuller employment fostered better relations bw PC workers reduction in IC immigration in 1848 helped subdue nativist impulseIt was a combination of nativist rhetoricmutual willingness to engage in armed conflict that provided a decade of social violence JULY 12 1847 RIOT Orangemen marched through Roman Catholic and York Point ghetto playing offensive music The IC crowd attackedcollected weaponsA tally showed that IC crowd consisted of 1 dead several woundedBattle was organized Catholics prepared hours before the march to defend territory there was no real victory on either sideJULY 12 1849 RIOT Orangemen planned march IC prepared by buying ammunition both sides prepared for battle The march would take the Orangemen through York Point first and an IC Portland districtIC had 500 peoplethe Orangemen were armed with muskets battle ensued with Orangemen firing a round of fire first which triggered the battle12 dead and IC had the most casualties Troops prevented the Orangemen from proceeding through York Point a third time the riot then endedMost Orangemen had charges droppedwere declared innocent 624 IC were charged with assault unlawful assembly and 1 person was charged w attempted murderthSt Patricks Day Parade 19 Century Toronto Michael Cottrell 1863 celebrations were largest and most impressive in Toronto on record Parades are public assertion of IC presence and solidarity in TorontoIC could claim city as their own and proudly publicize distinctionFor Loyalists and Brits parade was a reminder of Irish presence and determination of immigrants IC also protested marginalized position in the cityBoth lay and clerical Irish leaders decided that a lower public profile would have to be adopted to achieve acceptance recognition and prosperitySt Pats parade represented commitment to preservation of Irish culture and rights to advertise this on streets of TorontoHibernian Benevolent Society est after 1858 to protect Catholics from Orange aggressionoConsisted of Irish working class rejected idea of downplaying parade wanted it to be vigorous representation of Irish cultureo18631864 had largest parade turnout which was run by Hibernians oIrish middle class group was also fighting for control over parade leadershipIn 1860s control and leadership over Irish community fell from working class to middleclass elitists bc working class radicalism threatened interests of Irish communityCatholic League est in 1870 political pressure group to forward political interest of Ontario Catholics Hibernian influence decreased dramaticallyCatholic League helped bring attention to Irish grievances and gradually gained powerinfluence in politics and in the home1877 marked the last St Pats Parade for over a decade in Toronto bc ICs were gaining more political and social acceptance display of Irish display of distinctiveness was no longer needed With Irish ppl wanting to become more Canadian the need for having a parade droppedProsperity and security both politically and socially along with new generation of children who had few ties to Ireland gave Irish Torontonians a more Canadianized imageththWeek 3 African Americans Abolitionism Black Experiences 19 20 Cent CanadaThe Black Population of Canada West Michael WayneThere were apprx 17 000 blacks in Canada West in 1860 majority were slaves and their children many left to the US after civil war endedAccording to manuscript census apprx 57 of black pop were originally from US more than 40 of blacks were native born CanadiansSignificant proportion of the Southern blacks who came to Canada were free immigrants not fugitive slaves many assumed the majority that came to Canada were fugitivesFree men and women were more or less equally likely to relocate to CanadaMen were more likely than women to have opportunities to travel beyond the plantation and to learn to read and write
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