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Canadian Blood Services - in 1998 two new organizations, Canadian Blood Services and Hema-
Quebec, assumed the responsibility of managing the collection and distribution of blood and blood
products from the Red Cross. While these organizations differ on some of their policies and
procedures they are both regulated by Health Canada and must meet the same national regulatory
Hepatitis C - is a blood-borne disease that is spread by blood-to-blood contact with an infected person’s
blood and which can cause liver inflammation, cirrhosis, and liver cancer. The estimates of people
infected by transfusion-associated Hepa C range from 60,000-160,000.
Variation in infection – 90% of those infected go to develop chronic hepatitis and from these, 10
percent will develop cirrhosis of the liver or liver cancer after 10 years.
Human Immunodeficiency Virus - commonly known as HIV, this retrovirus primarily attacks the
human immune system and affects vital organs such as the kidneys, heart, and brain. HIV is
transmitted through direct contact of a mucous membrane with a bodily fluid containing the virus.
- 5-10% transmitted by infected blood transfusion.
o Joint United Nations Programme on HIV and AIDS estimated that 40 million people were
currently living with HIV worldwide, and that more than 28 million people have already died
from the disease. Aprox 2,000 Canadians became infect with HIV as a result of receiving a
Krever Inquiry - established by the Canadian Government in October 1993, the Royal
Commission of Inquiry on the Blood System in Canada (aka Krever Inquiry) investigated the
circumstances that surrounded the contamination of the Canadian blood supply in the HIV and Hepatitis
Precautionary principle - states that it’s better to avoid actions that will result in negative
consequences, even if that exact nature of consequences can’t be predicted. Measures may be taken