Textbook Notes (381,081)
CA (168,341)
UTSC (19,304)
HLTA02H3 (176)
Chapter 15

These are Chapter 15 Notes from the textbook

8 Pages
88 Views

Department
Health Studies
Course Code
HLTA02H3
Professor
Michelle Silver

This preview shows pages 1-3. Sign up to view the full 8 pages of the document.
CHAPTER 15: INEQUALITY, FAMILY, AND CHILD
HEALTH
Introduction
Inequalities of wealth and income produce unequal life chances the
opportunities for material and social rewards
Poverty translates into homelessness, ill health, short life expectancy,
malnutrition, and hunger
Political and social concerns about child poverty led in 1989 to an all-party
resolution in the House of Commons to end child poverty by the year 2000
Inequality and Poverty
An examination of income distribution data shows wide income disparities
among Canadians, as well as the small change in the share of income held by
Canadians in different income categories over time
The average family income in Canada is on the rise, but the richest fifth of the
population has gained the most
In 2003, the share of total after-tax income of the richest 20% of the family units
was 43.7% while for the poorest 20% it was 5%
The number of poor people was nearly 5 million in 2003 and the poverty rate
was almost 16%
Poverty rates have increased amid high unemployment rates, economic
restructuring that has forced job losses and wage cuts, and cutbacks in social
spending
In 2003, 1.2 million children lived in poverty (rate of 16.7%)
Poverty rates are relatively low for two-parent families and quite high for
families with single-parent mothers
www.notesolution.com
Unemployed persons, people whose participation in the labour force is irregular,
those with low education levels, and those in certain occupations all are at
higher risk of facing poverty
These disparities produce an inequality of opportunities and life chances, and
have negative outcomes for individuals in low-income and poor families
These factors are detrimental to healthy child development and child
well-being
Inequality, Poverty, and Health Status
Social medicine is mainly concerned with the social, economic, and
environmental conditions in society that produce patterns of morbidity and
mortality
Epidemiological data in Canada and elsewhere show a persistent and pervasive
association between socio-economic status and health status
Better socio-economic status means better health status
Those with high incomes live longer, healthier, and more disability-free lives on
average than those who are poor
Infant Mortality
Infant mortality is one of the most important indicators of population health of
a country because of its association with both adult mortality and life
expectancy
In 2003, the infant mortality rate for Canada was 5.3
Class, race and regional differences continue to affect child health
The infant mortality in the Aboriginal population is almost twice that of the
general population
Children of parents in the poorest neighbourhoods have twice the infant
mortality rates of children in the richest neighbourhoods
Disparities in birth outcomes are linked to neighbourhood income
www.notesolution.com
Those in the lower-income groups experience above-average infant mortality
rates
With respect to infant mortality, Canada does not rank very favourably with
other advanced countries
Its standing has declined in recent years
It is apparent that the association between socio-economic status and health
status arises very early in life the first injustice and this first injustice is
followed by an enduring association between socio-economic status and the risk
of death that persists throughout adult life
There are many reasons for variations in infant mortality rates, including low
birth weight, preventable communicable diseases, malnutrition, injuries,
household income, neighbourhood, and the mothers education
Health at Birth: Birth Outcomes and Birth Weight
The standard definition of low birth weight is less than 2500 grams (5.5 pounds)
at birth
The average weight at birth of a full-term infant is 3400 grams (7.5 pounds)
Low birth weight is a major cause of infant mortality
Children who survive face a high risk of other developmental and health-
related problems, such as impaired learning and neurodevelopment, and
loss of sight and hearing
The negative effect of low birth weight extends to adult life and contributes to
differences in mortality
Several factors are associated with low birth weight, including the mothers age,
health, tobacco and alcohol use during pregnancy, nutrition, and premature
delivery
Almost 6% of all live births in Canada in 1996 resulted in low birth weight
Low-birth-weight children are likely to be born to very young mothers (10-14
years) and to older mothers (45 and older)
www.notesolution.com

Loved by over 2.2 million students

Over 90% improved by at least one letter grade.

Leah — University of Toronto

OneClass has been such a huge help in my studies at UofT especially since I am a transfer student. OneClass is the study buddy I never had before and definitely gives me the extra push to get from a B to an A!

Leah — University of Toronto
Saarim — University of Michigan

Balancing social life With academics can be difficult, that is why I'm so glad that OneClass is out there where I can find the top notes for all of my classes. Now I can be the all-star student I want to be.

Saarim — University of Michigan
Jenna — University of Wisconsin

As a college student living on a college budget, I love how easy it is to earn gift cards just by submitting my notes.

Jenna — University of Wisconsin
Anne — University of California

OneClass has allowed me to catch up with my most difficult course! #lifesaver

Anne — University of California
Description
CHAPTER 15: INEQUALITY, FAMILY, AND CHILD HEALTH Introduction Inequalities of wealth and income produce unequal life chances the opportunities for material and social rewards Poverty translates into homelessness, ill health, short life expectancy, malnutrition, and hunger Political and social concerns about child poverty led in 1989 to an all-party resolution in the House of Commons to end child poverty by the year 2000 Inequality and Poverty An examination of income distribution data shows wide income disparities among Canadians, as well as the small change in the share of income held by Canadians in different income categories over time The average family income in Canada is on the rise, but the richest fifth of the population has gained the most In 2003, the share of total after-tax income of the richest 20% of the family units was 43.7% while for the poorest 20% it was 5% The number of poor people was nearly 5 million in 2003 and the poverty rate was almost 16% Poverty rates have increased amid high unemployment rates, economic restructuring that has forced job losses and wage cuts, and cutbacks in social spending In 2003, 1.2 million children lived in poverty (rate of 16.7%) Poverty rates are relatively low for two-parent families and quite high for families with single-parent mothers www.notesolution.com
More Less
Unlock Document


Only pages 1-3 are available for preview. Some parts have been intentionally blurred.

Unlock Document
You're Reading a Preview

Unlock to view full version

Unlock Document

Log In


OR

Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


OR

By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.


Submit