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Chapter 7

Chapter 7

3 Pages
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Department
Health Studies
Course Code
HLTA02H3
Professor
Toba Bryant

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Chapter 7: Gender, Race, and Health Inequalities- Ann Pederson & Dennis Rapheal
Health grounded in context of mens and womens lives: it arises from roles we play, expectations
we encounter and opportunities available to us based upon whether we are women or men, girls or
boys
Many Canadians disadvantaged as result of differences in income, power, age, sexual orientation,
geographic location, disability and/or race as result of experiences of violence, trauma, migration
or colonization
Gender and Health
Key Concepts
Sex: biological aspects of being male of female
oUnderlying physiological processes and anatomical features that are typically different in
males and females
Gender: social attributes commonly ascribed to people who are male of female
oAll societies organized in ways that reflect constructions of women and men as different
kinds of people, with respective roles, responsibilities, opportunities, including access to
resources and benefits
oIs a relational concept that also involves relations between women and men including
gender power
Sex and gender interact to create health conditions, situations and problems unique to one sex or
vary in terms of prevalence, severity, risk factors, interventions for women and men
Health Status
Statistics Canada: average life expectancy at birth in 1999 was 79 years, women at 81.7, men at
76.3
First Nations people living on and off reserve: women at 76.6, men at 68.9
Main causes of death among women and men in Canada: coronary heart disease, cancer, chronic
lung disease
oAnalysis of potential years of life lost (PYLL) show larger number of PYLL attributable to
accidents in men opposed to cancer for women
Women report more frequent long-term disability and more chronic conditions than men, the
higher mortality rate and lower life expectancy of men compared to women may have
misinterpreted to mean that women enjoy superior health and not because of the higher
prevalence of chronic conditions in women
There is narrowing gender gap in longevity in industrialized countries mostly due to improvements
in mens life expectancy
6 ways that sex and gender are important in shaping health and health care needs:
oSex-specific conditions
For women: birth control, pregnancy, childbirth, menstruation, menopause, female
infertility, cervical cancer screening
Men: prostate and testicular cancer and other diseases of reproductive system, male
infertility and related problems
oThere are conditions that are more prevalent among women or men
Women: breast cancer, eating disorders, depression, self inflicted injuries
Men: substance use, Schizophrenia, HIV/AIDS
oConditions that appear to be sex-neutral such as heart disease, but signs, symptoms and
treatments may be different for women and men
oWomens gendered roles in society influence health
Womens caregiving responsibilities and the demands of it
Sex-segregation of labour force- in general and within health care
Average lower incomes
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Description
Chapter 7: Gender, Race, and Health Inequalities- Ann Pederson & Dennis Rapheal Health grounded in context of mens and womens lives: it arises from roles we play, expectations we encounter and opportunities available to us based upon whether we are women or men, girls or boys Many Canadians disadvantaged as result of differences in income, power, age, sexual orientation, geographic location, disability andor race as result of experiences of violence, trauma, migration or colonization Gender and Health Key Concepts Sex: biological aspects of being male of female o Underlying physiological processes and anatomical features that are typically different in males and females Gender: social attributes commonly ascribed to people who are male of female o All societies organized in ways that reflect constructions of women and men as different kinds of people, with respective roles, responsibilities, opportunities, including access to resources and benefits o Is a relational concept that also involves relations between women and men including gender power Sex and gender interact to create health conditions, situations and problems unique to one sex or vary in terms of prevalence, severity, risk factors, interventions for women and men Health Status Statistics Canada: average life expectancy at birth in 1999 was 79 years, women at 81.7, men at 76.3 First Nations people living on and off reserve: women at 76.6, men at 68.9 Main causes of death among women and men in Canada: coronary heart disease, cancer, chronic lung disease o Analysis of potentia
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