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Chapter

Week 9 readings

6 Pages
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Department
Health Studies
Course Code
HLTA02H3
Professor
Toba Bryant

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WEEK 9
Chapter 7: Gender, Race, and Health Inequalities- Ann Pederson & Dennis Rapheal
Health grounded in context of mens and womens lives: it arises from roles we play, expectations
we encounter and opportunities available to us based upon whether we are women or men, girls or
boys
Many Canadians disadvantaged as result of differences in income, power, age, sexual orientation,
geographic location, disability and/or race as result of experiences of violence, trauma, migration
or colonization
Gender and Health
Key Concepts
Sex: biological aspects of being male of female
oUnderlying physiological processes and anatomical features that are typically different in
males and females
Gender: social attributes commonly ascribed to people who are male of female
oAll societies organized in ways that reflect constructions of women and men as different
kinds of people, with respective roles, responsibilities, opportunities, including access to
resources and benefits
oIs a relational concept that also involves relations between women and men including
gender power
Sex and gender interact to create health conditions, situations and problems unique to one sex or
vary in terms of prevalence, severity, risk factors, interventions for women and men
Health Status
Statistics Canada: average life expectancy at birth in 1999 was 79 years, women at 81.7, men at
76.3
First Nations people living on and off reserve: women at 76.6, men at 68.9
Main causes of death among women and men in Canada: coronary heart disease, cancer, chronic
lung disease
oAnalysis of potential years of life lost (PYLL) show larger number of PYLL attributable to
accidents in men opposed to cancer for women
Women report more frequent long-term disability and more chronic conditions than men, the
higher mortality rate and lower life expectancy of men compared to women may have
misinterpreted to mean that women enjoy superior health and not because of the higher
prevalence of chronic conditions in women
There is narrowing gender gap in longevity in industrialized countries mostly due to improvements
in mens life expectancy
6 ways that sex and gender are important in shaping health and health care needs:
oSex-specific conditions
For women: birth control, pregnancy, childbirth, menstruation, menopause, female
infertility, cervical cancer screening
Men: prostate and testicular cancer and other diseases of reproductive system, male
infertility and related problems
oThere are conditions that are more prevalent among women or men
Women: breast cancer, eating disorders, depression, self inflicted injuries
Men: substance use, Schizophrenia, HIV/AIDS
oConditions that appear to be sex-neutral such as heart disease, but signs, symptoms and
treatments may be different for women and men
oWomens gendered roles in society influence health
Womens caregiving responsibilities and the demands of it
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Sex-segregation of labour force- in general and within health care
Average lower incomes
Greater responsibilities for combining paid work with child care or caring for other
family members
oGender stereotypes within health care system
oOvermedicalization of normal aspects of womens lives- pregnancy, childbirth, menopause
Issues Affecting Mens and Womens health in Canada
Smoking
oGirls start earlier than boys; First nations have highest smoking rates in Canada: 62% of
First nations, 72% of Inuit compared to 29% of general population
oLink with womens tobacco use to poverty, child care responsibilities, few employment
opportunities, poor housing
Poverty
oWomen more likely to be poor then men- childbearing, child custody following divorce,
womens employment over lifespan
oLone mothers vulnerable to poverty in terms of incidence (56% poor in 1997) and depth
(average incomes $9046 less than low income cut-off poverty line in 1997)
Availability of child care: assists women in role as primary child rearers and facilitates
employment outside home
Violence in women and men; a man more likely to experience violence on street, woman violence
from family member in home
Mental health and illness
oWomen twice as likely as men to be diagnosed with depression. Highest prevalence of
depression in Aboriginal women
oMen more often diagnosed with schizophrenia, personality disorders and substance abuse
oAssociated with poverty. Less known homelessness regarding women, because women deal
with being without shelter differently- they are more likely to couch surf”- stay with a
relative or friend
**From here on I used Margarets notes to try to keep it short**
Race, Ethnicity, and Health
Aboriginal groups and immigrant groups: visible minorities or racialized groups
Racialization: how groups of individuals come to be treated in inferior ways compared with the
dominant group
Health status differences between Aboriginal groups compared to Whites is profound
oDifferences less significant for immigrants, but recently have found that health deteriorates
over time for non-European immigrants
oDue to differences in economic and social conditions among racialized groups
Concepts of Racialization
Institutionalized racism: involves structures of society and may be codified in institutions of
practice, law, and governmental inaction in the face of need
Personally mediated racism: Prejudice and discrimination (i.e. lack of respect, suspicion,
devaluation, scapegoating, and dehumanization)
Internalized racism: Those who are stigmatized accept these messages about their own abilities
and intrinsic lack of worth
oCan lead to resignation, helplessness, and lack of hope
Aboriginal People
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Description
WEEK 9 Chapter 7: Gender, Race, and Health Inequalities- Ann Pederson & Dennis Rapheal Health grounded in context of mens and womens lives: it arises from roles we play, expectations we encounter and opportunities available to us based upon whether we are women or men, girls or boys Many Canadians disadvantaged as result of differences in income, power, age, sexual orientation, geographic location, disability andor race as result of experiences of violence, trauma, migration or colonization Gender and Health Key Concepts Sex: biological aspects of being male of female o Underlying physiological processes and anatomical features that are typically different in males and females Gender: social attributes commonly ascribed to people who are male of female o All societies organized in ways that reflect constructions of women and men as different kinds of people, with respective roles, responsibilities, opportunities, including access to resources and benefits o Is a relational concept that also involves relations between women and men including gender power Sex and gender interact to create health conditions, situations and problems unique to one sex or vary in terms of prevalence, severity, risk factors, interventions for women and men Health Status Statistics Canada: average life expectancy at birth in 1999 was 79 years, women at 81.7, men at 76.3 First Nations people living on and off reserve: women at 76.6, men at 68.9 Main causes of death among women and men in Canada: coronary heart disease, cancer, chronic lung disease o Analysis of potential years of life lost (PYLL) show larger number of PYLL attributable to accidents in men opposed to cancer for women Women report more frequent long-term disability and more chronic conditions than men, the higher mortality rate and lower life expectancy of men compared to women may have misinterpreted to mean that women enjoy superior health and not because of the higher prevalence of chronic conditions in women There is narrowing gender gap in longevity in industrialized countries mostly due to improvements in mens life expectancy 6 ways that sex and gender are important in shaping health and health care needs: o Sex-specific conditions For women: birth control, pregnancy, childbirth, menstruation, menopause, female infertility, cervical cancer screening Men: prostate and testicular cancer and other diseases of reproductive system, male infertility and related problems o There are conditions that are more prevalent among women or men Women: breast cancer, eating disorders, depression, self inflicted injuries Men: substance use, Schizophrenia, HIVAIDS o Conditions that appear to be sex-neutral such as heart disease, but signs, symptoms and treatments may be different for women and men o Womens gendered roles in society influence health Womens caregiving responsibilities and the demands of it www.notesolution.com
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