HLTB03 CHAPTER 7
Capping: cost containment measures such as setting a predetermined level of number of activities to be
performed within a specific program during a specified time frame; for example, a number of par t i cula r
organ transplants or surgeries over a one-year period.
Common good: the well-being of aggregates(communities and society), not just individuals; some
notion of the well-being of communities and society, if ar r ived at through participator y democratic
processes, can provide a moral hor izon for work in ethics and public policy
Constrained agency: ideological and structural constraints to agency within nursing such that nurses are
unable to act upon their professional responsibilities and accountability.
Cor porate ideology: the t aken for granted beliefs, attitudes, and assumptions that bring a bus iness
model to health care.
Culture: the processes that happen between people as individuals and as groups within organizations
and society, and that confer meaning and signifi cance; t he health care system has its own culture.
Downsizing: cost containment measures such as bed closures, staff layoffs, and reductions in the length
of hospital stay.
Emotional labour: the effort involved in dealing with other people’s feelings and emotions, and in the
case of nursing, dealing with the fears and wor r ies of ill patients and thei r families and promoting the
emotional well-being of patients.
Globalization: the economic, social, and political transfor mation of the world, such that capital flows
around the world to serve the interests of an economically dominant elite.
Ideology: a set of beliefs, attitudes, and assumptions about the world that justify or explain “what is”.
Ideologies are not in and of themselves good or bad; when unexamined, however, t hey can lead to
Ideology of scarcity: a perception about the state of the economy, fiscal realities, the availability of
funds, and budgetary deficits, such that current levels of care are no longer affordable; a view popularized
by the media, corporate elite, management elite, and others.
Moral agency: the actions through which people fulfill their moral responsibility and accountability
and deal with ethical problems.
Moral distress: a situation that occurs when nurses are unable to translate their moral choices into
moral actions because of constraints in the organizational context; the aftermath can include anger,
frustration, guilt and powerlessness
Structural constraints: administrative policies, procedures, and practices, such as allotted labor time and
performance evaluation, that set the parameters within which labor is performed
The Canadian health care system is increasingly shaped by globalization, in which capital f lows around
the world to serve the interests of an economically dominant elite.
The implementation of refor ms to improve the quality and accessibility of health care is fuelled by
corpor ate ideology.
Canada operates on myths rather than memory and has lost sight of its commitment to the common
good that characterized the development of Canada as a nation.
Nurses identified their attention to the nonphysical needs of patients as the aspect of care that suffered
most, both during the provision of routine care and when patients experienced significant emotional crises.
The introduction of management technology to manage nurses’ labour shaped the relationship between
fiscal restraint and nursing.
Cor porate streamlining and eff i cient processing shape direct patient care.
Nurses providing direct care are treated as if they are disposable in at least four ways. Their intellectual
and emotional labor, their personal time, and their well-being are too often sacrif iced for the eff iciency of