Textbook Notes (381,287)
CA (168,463)
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HLTA02H3 (176)
Anna Walsh (25)
Chapter 19

Chapter 19 Notes

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Department
Health Studies
Course Code
HLTA02H3
Professor
Anna Walsh

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Hltb03Ch. 19
-Environmental health issues can only be analyzed if the social and political
economic contexts in which these issues are embedded are understood first
Public concern about the environment and health
-Rachel Carsons publication of Silent spring, inspired modern day environmental
movementshe described the devastating environmental and health impacts of the
synthetically produced chemical DDT
-DDT was used after WWII for control of a wide range of insect pests—it was
widespread in the environment and in the food chain
-Publication of Silent springsinspired numerous political and social reactions as
environmental movements arose to protect the environment from chemical
contamination and to demand the need to regulate industry
-The photo of the earth taken from space also brought into vivid focus the finite and
fragile qualities of the physical/material basis that supports our lives and came the
realization that we need to preserve that life support system through
environmental protectionism
-The emphasis on the need to protect the environment was bolstered by the release of
the Limits to growth report in 1972the report presented different future scenarios
based on the results of inputting a large number of different variables into a
computer modelit concluded that industrial growth could not keep going the way it
was presently going, because that would lead to societal collapse based on major food
shortages, the depletion of natural resources and an excessive amount of pollution
and chemical contaminations
-This report and the oil crisis in 1972 served to heighten public awareness of the
environmental issue
-During this period there was a rise of various environmental acts, legislation and
government bodies
-A decade laterthe UNWCEDreleased a reportintroduced the influential notion
of sustainable development
oIt offered a solution by formally attempting to bridge together concerns about
environmental protection with continued industrial growth
oThe urgency to adopt an approach became more compelling as evidence
mounted for two environmental problems of a worldwide scopeboth of
which could be attributed to industrial activities of the modern day—the
www.notesolution.com
Hltb03Ch. 19
thinning of the ozone layer due to CFCs and global warming due to
greenhouse gases
The tragedy of the commons
-The view that the life supporting capabilities of the Earth were being threatened by
increasing impacts of human activities, particularly industrial activities—neo
Malthusian perspective
oProposed that while natural resources grow linearly, at some point
population growth will outpace the growth of food needed to feed the
increasing human population
oAnd concluded, that as a result, human misery will be an inevitable part of
life in the future because the Earth will no longer be able to provide
subsistence for the population
-Hardin argues that serious problems arise because the sustainability of the
commons—stuff that is owned equally by everyone in the communitycommon
land, air we breathe and water we drinkis threatened because of what Hardin
describes as inherent human drive to maximize utility based on rational but selfish
considerations
-The over exploitation of the Earths resources will undermine the ability of the
Earth to maintain its life support functions, which we as human beings depend upon
for our survival
-The environmental costs that are shared by community are known as externalities
—because they are treated as if they are external to the system
-The capitalists argue that these externalities are somebody elses problem, not theirs
—so if the pollution factories produce makes people outside the factory sick, then the
government should do something about cleaning up the pollution and the
government should pay for the medical bills of the sick people through the welfare
state
-so the costs of the industrial manufacture are externalized—so the industrial
capitalist receive a free ride because the profits of industrial manufacturing accrue
to the private industrialist, but the costs of the contaminated commons are
externalized
-currently environmental economists have developed various techniques to
internalize these costs in an attempt to end the free ride
www.notesolution.com
Hltb03Ch. 19
- so the grazing of the common involved a subtraction of natural resources from the
commons, whereas industrial pollution involved unwanted additions to the commons
—but either way, were dealing with externalities that destroy the commons and the
free rider problem
-Societal attempts to deal with externalities become political issues involving
environmental health issues associated with risk management and environmental
justice
A toxic culture
-Beck contends that we live in a risk society where the unanticipated side effects or
unintended consequences and externalities of the industrialization process are
brought to the political forefront
-After WWI there was tacit societal tolerance for the production of negative
externalities because such consequences were rationalized and justified as the costs
of progress and were accepted
-But with contemporary proliferation of environmental risks of potentially global
impact, approval has become politically problematic and the logic of risk production
has become questioned by the general public
-The need to confront the externalities is important with respect to chronic toxicity
where harmful health effects occur because of low dose exposure over long periods
-Studies show that virtually every living human being carries a toxic body burden to
some degree
-Body burden aka bioaccumulationof toxic substances in the body, enter the
body through various routes, through various sources
- many of the chemicals that persist in the body are fat soluble particularly those
referred to as persistent organic pollutants ( POPs)
-since human breast milk is ~3% fat, POPs tend to concentrate here-- ~25% of all US
breast milk was too contaminated to be bottled and sold as a food commodity
-this is just one example of living in what is referred to as a toxic culture
-Hofritcher defines a toxic culture as one in which social arrangements encourage
and excuse the deterioration of the environmental and human health
www.notesolution.com

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Description
Hltb03Ch. 19 - Environmental health issues can only be analyzed if the social and political economic contexts in which these issues are embedded are understood first Public concern about the environment and health - Rachel Carsons publication of Silent spring, inspired modern day environmental movementshe described the devastating environmental and health impacts of the synthetically produced chemical DDT - DDT was used after WWII for control of a wide range of insect pestsit was widespread in the environment and in the food chain - Publication of Silent springsinspired numerous political and social reactions as environmental movements arose to protect the environment from chemical contamination and to demand the need to regulate industry - The photo of the earth taken from spacealso brought into vivid focus the finite and fragile qualities of the physicalmaterial basis that supports our lives and came the realization that we need to preserve that life support system through environmental protectionism - The emphasis on the need to protect the environment was bolstered by the release of the Limits to growth report in 1972the report presented different future scenarios based on the results of inputting a large number of different variables into a computer modelit concluded that industrial growth could not keep going the way it was presently going, because that would lead to societal collapse based on major food shortages, the depletion of natural resources and an excessive amount of pollution and chemical contaminations - This report and the oil crisis in 1972 served to heighten public awareness of the environmental issue - During this period there was a rise of various environmental acts, legislation and government bodies - A decade laterthe UNWCEDreleased a reportintroduced the influential notion of sustainable development o It offered a solution by formally attempting to bridge together concerns about environmental protection with continued industrial growth o The urgency to adopt an approach became more compelling as evidence mounted for two environmental problems of a worldwide scopeboth of which could be attributed to industrial activities of the modern daythe www.notesolution.com
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