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HLTB15H3 Chapter Notes -Longitudinal Study, Population Study, Chronic Condition

Health Studies
Course Code
Iva Zovkic

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Week #7: Differentiating associations with gender and socio-economic status by Margraet Duetz,
Thomas Abel, & Steffen Niemann
Cohort Survey on health related lifestyles, four measures of health and their association
with respect to gender, socio-economic status and psychosocial factors
Carried out in Berne Switzerland, with 923 participants aged 56-66 years
4 self report health measures self rated health, physical fitness, number of medical
conditions, restrictions caused by medical conditions
Regression analysis was used to investigate and compare their associations with gender,
SES and psychosocial factors
Gender statistically significantly associated with physical fitness, number of medical
conditions and subsequent restrictions
Education and income showed statistically significant associations with self-rated health
and fitness
Psychological factors were statistically associated with all health measures
Gender showed to interact with education
Income interacted with internal locus of control
The choice of health measures in a population study should comply with the intention to
analyze its associations with any of those related factors or in reverse with the wish to
prevent their confounding properties
Gender, SES and psycho social factors are important determinants of health
Gender is preferred over sex especially when social processes and gender-specific social
roles rather than biological differences are assumed to result in different health states
Social structural factors were most important to health in women than in men, whereas
health behavior was more closely associated wit health in men than in women
Health behavior more closely associated with health in men than in women
Differential employment conditions contribute to gender differences in health
Low SES known to be associated with ill health and mortality and morbidity
Social classes and political conditions also influences inequalities in health
Ill health may also impair the individual SES reversing direction of causality
Weakened social cohesion also plays a role
Sense of coherence and health locus of control are important psychosocial factors related
to health
There is considerable heterogeneity regarding study populations
High SES is associated with enlarged availability of psychosocial resources
Population study is 923 participants from 56-66
Health indicators
o Self rated health as an indicator of the subjective general state of health
o Physical fitness as a measure of the ability to perform daily tasks
o Number of chronic medical conditions which equals a measure of morbidity
o Subjective assessment of ones restrictions due to medical conditions
Two of these measures self rated health and fitness relate to positive aspects of health
Chronic illness and restrictions due to medical conditions are indictors of ill health
Positive measures highlight the predominance of positive judgments of one’s health state
Measures on ill health are indicators for morbidity and functional impairment in a more
strictly biomedical sense
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