HLTB21H3 Chapter Notes -Anemia, Rickets, Pellagra
HLTC23 Lecture Notes – Child Health and Development
Office Hours are Wednesdays from 11 to 12
Laura will let us know what time is best for her during office hours. On Campus Mondays and
Hand in assignments through turn it in.
Lecture 1 – Framing Childhood & a Biological Perspective & Genes with the Environment & WHO
Make sure you have an understanding of the Ecological Model for the Assignment.
Child Development Stages
The WHO definition of child is 0 – 8 years. In our course it will be about kids from prenatal
stages all the way to puberty (in general).
Look over and study the provided chart.
Impacts on health as a child don’t always go away. Even if it may seem that way it still does go
onto one’s adolescence.
Different Environment cause Different Outcomes
People are different they go through different exposures and cause differences.
Influences as a child affect health as a child and in the future too.
Healthy children do much better in life.
Scope of the Course
Contextual environment is the social environment around a child (socio-economic factors). Is
the school they attend equipped well . . .
Looking at a global perspective for the assignment. Epigenetics the environment one lives in
changes the expression of genes
Genome – everything that constitutes the genetics in an organism. 23 pairs of chromosomes,
made of nucleotides that code for specific proteins.
Human genome contain 30,000 + genes.
A locus is looked at when looking for an issue in a specific gene on a chromosome
Genes are important because they make proteins that are coded via RNA
Proteins make up the cells essentially. Many different functions. They are involved in direct cell
activity (antibodies, growth). Proteins affect gene activity, they aren’t changing the gene itself
but rather the expression. Epigenetics is affected by the external environment.
Proteins made of 20 types of amino acids, these are stored inside the cell.
Genes and Human Behaviour
Baker looks at 3 aspects: elevation of plats, PKU conditions, and human intelligence.
Phenomena that Affect Gene/ Environment Interactions
Developmental noise – cannot be explained
Gene/Environment Correlations – for example is a child is born with the genes for being tall. If
the child grows up having healthy foods for growing this is considered passive. Other way
around if they have the gene but they are actively pursue healthy foods in an environment that
doesn’t have healthy foods, this is considered active.
Developmental pathways – walking, or heading off to school. . . events in a person’s life that take them
Improving the state of early child development
Infections, obesity and so on can affect health across in the life course if occurs in childhood.
Every child has the right to develop in a healthy way
Look into the Millennium Developmental Goals. (Read this, we are not close to the target.)
Which environment? Family, Government, Neighboring . . .
The gradient effect – people say higher income better health. Higher income results in better
incomes. (think of education)
Stunted – didn’t grow there best capability.
Focus on inequities.
Positive Feedback Loop – if people are poor they will have poor outcomes and this is passed
onto there next generations. Basically a cycle that has to be broken.
Lecture 2 – Growth and Development: the ecological model of child development
Why are children vulnerable to the environment?
Brain development is not completed at birth
Experience teaches brain cells to communicate with each other. These connections are
created by stimuli.
Neuronal connections increases with age, increased activity levels means more
Good stimulation to develop brain properly especially in the first year of life.
Once we have our active nerve pathways, it makes it easier to learn later on in life.
75 percent of a baby’s brain grows after birth. After 6 years the last 10 percent growth
Piagets theory – what is a child able to do by specific ages. Reflected by how children
see the world at a specific age. At age one they are egocentric and later on they
understand the world better. Table 1.3 on page 15 summaries of theories.
Model of Ecological Child Development (Irwin)
The spheres slide – child level and family level
Terminology – determinants of health: anything that affects health, so factors that
interact to create specific health conditions. Social determinants of Health: relate to
social and economic conditions that affect health. Biological Embedding – life course
perspective (health at an early age affects health at a later age). . . Sensitization in child
development in terms of food allergies(biological aspect), child exposed to domsetic
violence are more likely to have emotional and behavioural problems later on (social). .
. there are more examples.
The Child (individual level determinants) – what you feed a child matters. Anemia is
prevalent in children. Ususally eating the right vitamins and iron can prevent this.
o Berberi can cause nerve and heart damage, to prevent it eat foods rich in
o Strengthening of the bones at a younger age is important or else the bones will
become porous and therefore make the bone break.
o Pellagra – common in children in developing countries. Produces the symptoms
that include the 4 Ds (dermatitis, diarrhea, death).
o Rickets – can be caused by the bodys inability to absorb vitamin D or when a
child doesn’t get enough vitamin D. Rickets still exist but because vitamin D
cannot be absorbed not because it is deficient (chronic condition). If it is
deficient it can be easily fixed by supplements.
o Morbidity in female children in India is higher, this is due to the inequality of
feeding between male and female children. There are inequities on the basis of
Individual relationships – rewarding environments is essential to give a child the feeling
of security and trust. Care giver is important.
Play time – teaches a child how to socialize. It teaches them what’s important.
Second Sphere The Family – this is often affected by social and economic resources.
1) Attachment to a Caregiver
Punitive – how behavior was dealt with (strict or not strict)
According to the graph it seems as though non-punitive throughout is the best
scenario (explaining to the child)
2) Socioeconomic status
LICO – low income cut off.
Resources available – play time, food available
Types of dwelling – residential crowding, exposures like mould, the temperature
in a house, carpets issues.
Evans and Kantrowitz – physical exposures impact health. For example people of
low SES live closer to toxic areas. Look at slides for stats.
3) Family Health