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CA (167,188)
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HLTB21H3 (177)
Chapter 1

Chapters 1, 2, 3

4 Pages
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Department
Health Studies
Course Code
HLTB21H3
Professor
Caroline Barakat

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Parasites – organism that grow, feds, and is sheltered an or in a different organism and that does not contribute to the survival of
its host
Virusultimate mirco-parasitesmaller than bacteria; neither cells not organism; can only reproduce with their host
Marco-parasitescomposed of many cells; cycles through transmission stages (eggs and larvae) which pass into the external
environment
Transmissionmovement of a parasite from host to host
Incubation periodinterval of time required for development of a disease
Latent periodseemingly inactive period between exposure to an inflection and subsequent illness
Parasite virulencecapacity of a parasite to cause disease
Zoonotic infectionsanimal infections that can be transmitted to humans
R0 (reproductive ratio of disease) - how many people one person can affect; # of 2nd infections expected
Main factors that influence the occurrence of a disease:
1.host (immunity, genetics, nutrition) 2.environment (promote exposure) 3.agent (biological, physical, chemical, psychosocial,
rate of growth, persistence)
Mode of disease transmission:
Direct transmissionfrom person to person Indirectthrough a common rate/vector eg. Contaminated water/air
Portal of entry:
Dermalthrough the skin eg. Fungus Ingestion through the mouth eg. E.coli in water Inhalationduring respiration eg.
Particulate matter Aspirationairway entry
Types of diseases:
-broad spectrum of disease severity iceberg concept
Tuberculosisinfectious disease that most commonly attack the lungs
Measles common skin rash, transmitted from respiration
Rabiesaffects central nervous system, transmitted through saliva
Types of disease outbreaks:
1.endemic usual occurrence of a disease within a given geographical area 2.epidemicoccurrence of a disease in excess of
normal expectancy 3.pandemicworldwide epidemic
Type 1 epidemic: large pop. Regular outbreaks; disease never completely disappears; R0>1
Type 2 epidemic: regular outbreaks; not enough susceptible individuals; R0<1
Type 3 epidemic: irregular outbreaks; long periods of no disease; R0<1
Attack rate: measure of outbreak; ratio of #people with illness/total #people at risk
Determinants of disease outbreaks:
Herd immunityresistance of a group to an disease attack due to immunity incubation period
Attack rateratio of the # people in whom a certain illness develops/total # people at risk
Definition of plagues
-highly infectious, usually fatal epidemic disease
-serious, potentially life-threatening infectious disease that is usually transmitted to humans by the nites of rodent fleas
Plagues of Antiquity
-5000 BC to 700 AD
-characterised by parasites with long lived transmission stages
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Description
Parasites organism that grow, feds, and is sheltered an or in a different organism and that does not contribute to the survival of its host Virus ultimate mirco-parasite smaller than bacteria; neither cells not organism; can only reproduce with their host Marco-parasites composed of many cells; cycles through transmission stages (eggs and larvae) which pass into the external environment Transmission movement of a parasite from host to host Incubation period interval of time required for development of a disease Latent period seemingly inactive period between exposure to an inflection and subsequent illness Parasite virulence capacity of a parasite to cause disease Zoonotic infections animal infections that can be transmitted to humans R 0reproductive ratio of disease) - how many people one person can affect; # of 2 infections expected Main factors that influence the occurrence of a disease: 1.host (immunity, genetics, nutrition) 2.environment (promote exposure) 3.agent (biological, physical, chemical, psychosocial, rate of growth, persistence) Mode of disease transmission: Direct transmission from person to person Indirect through a common ratevector eg. Contaminated waterair Portal of entry: Dermal through the skin eg. Fungus Ingestion through the mouth eg. E.coli in water Inhalation during respiration eg. Particulate matter Aspiration airway entry Types of diseases: -broad spectrum of disease severity iceberg concept Tuberculosis infectious disease that most commonly attack the lungs Measles common skin rash, transmitted from respiration Rabies affects central nervous system, transmitted through saliva Types of disease outbreaks: 1.endemic usual occurrence of a disease within a given geographical area 2.epidemic occurrence of a disease in excess of normal expectancy 3.pandemic worldwide epidemic Type 1 epidemic: large pop. Regular outbreaks; disease never completely disappears; R >1 0 Type 2 epidemic: regular outbreaks; not enough susceptible individuals; R <1 0 Type 3 epidemic: irregular outbreaks; long periods of no disease; R <1 0 Attack rate: measure of outbreak; ratio of #people with illnesstotal #people at risk Determinants of disease outbreaks: Herd immunity resistance of a group to an disease attack due to immunity incubation period Attack rate ratio of the # people in whom a certain illness developstotal # people at risk Definition of plagues -highly infectious, usually fatal epidemic disease -serious, potentially life-threatening infectious disease that is usually transmitted to humans by the nites of rodent fleas Plagues of Antiquity -5000 BC to 700 AD -characterised by parasites with long lived transmission stages www.notesolution.com
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