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HLTB21H3 (100)
Chapter 1&2

Chapter 1 & 2 important definitions


Department
Health Studies
Course Code
HLTB21H3
Professor
Caroline Barakat
Chapter
1&2

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Plague- highly infectious, usually fatal epidemic disease./a serious, potentially life-threatening infectious disease
that is usually transmitted to humans by the bites of rodent fleas
Parasites – organism that grows, feeds, and is sheltered on or in a different organism and that does not contribute to
the survival of its host.
Parasitismthe intimate association of 2 different kinds of organisms wherein one benefits at the expense of the
other.
Macro-parasitescomposed of many cells, can be seen without the use of microscope; cycles through
transmission stages (eggs and larvae) which pass into the external environment, do not multiply in the host.
Virus – ultimate micro-parasitesmaller than bacteria; neither cells nor organisms; can only reproduce within their
host can be killed if their DNA or RNA is destroyed.
Incubation period -interval of time required for development of a disease
Latent period -seemingly inactive period between exposure to an infection and subsequent illness
Vector - an organism that transmits a pathogen from reservoir to host
Transmissionthe movement of parasite from host to host whether direct or indirect.
Host – organism harboring another organism on or in itself
AgentBiological, physical, chemical, psych osocial. Rate of growth, persistence. (eg.bacteria)
Environment- promote exposure of the disease (ex. Contaminated water)
Herd immunityresistance of a group to a disease attack due to immunity.
Parasite virulence -capacity of a parasite to cause disease
Endemic – usual occurrence of a disease within a given geographical area
Epidemic – occurrence of a disease in excess of normal expectancy
Pandemicworldwide epidemic
Pathogen- an infectious agent, or more commonly germ, is a biological agent that causes disease to its host.
Incidence - a measure of the risk of developing some new condition within a specified period of time.
Prevalence - the total number of cases of the disease in the population at a given time divided by the population. It
is used as an estimate of how common a condition is within a population over a certain period of time.
R
0
the # of ppl each infected person infects at the beginning of an epidemic. It is the multiplier of the disease
which helps to predict how fast the disease will spread.
Dermal – disease transmission through the skin, e.g. fungus
Ingestion – disease transmission through the mouth, e.g. E.coli in water
Inhalation – disease transmission during respiration, e.g. particulate matter
Aspiration – disease transmission happens when something thats supposed to go into stomach accidently goes into
the airway system.
Attack rate ratio of the #people in whom a certain illness develops / total #people at risk
Measlescommon skin rash, transmitted from respiration (around 94% must be immune)
Tuberculosisinfec tious disease that most commonly attacks the lungs. Many times no apparent symptoms.
Rabiesaffec ts central nervous system, transmitted through saliva. Once sb gets it, its serious.
Type I Epidemic – pop
n
is large(300,000~500,000), pattern shows regular series of peaks, and disease never
completely disappears (endemic). Because # of susceptible ppl is large enough. Ro >1
Type II epidemic – peaks of infection is not continuous (not endemic), regular pattern of occurrence. Ro < 1
(10,000~100,000 population)
Type III epidemic – pattern of increase # of cases occur at irregular intervals, there are long periods when there are
no disease. Ro much smaller than 1. ( less than 10 ,000 of population.)
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