HLTB21H3 Chapter Notes - Chapter 13: Andrean High School, Tuberculosis, Mycobacterium Bovis

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13 Feb 2011
Chapter 13: Tuberculosis
History of Tuberculosis (since antiquity)
·Documented in Egypt, India and China as early as 5000, 3300, and 2300 years ago
·Typical skeletal abnormalities, TB in spine found in Andrean mummies, clear that TB was
found 5000 years ago
·2400 BC, Egyptian mummies show pathological signs from TB
·TB limited to animals in prehistoric times (8000-4000 BC), domesticating animals spread the
diseases to humans
TB epidemics likely from changes in the host population and the environment, bovine TB
could have transferred from domestication of animals to humans by milk-drinking herdsmen
·800 BC, Homer, the term itself phthisis or consumption
·460 BC, Hippocrates, identify pulmonary TB, disease was due to evil air but did not consider
it contagious, knew it was fatal
·384-322 BC, Aristotle, suggested that TB may be due to “bad and heavy breath
·Claims of royal supernatural powers during the Middle Ages (AD 500-1500), practice of
powers that could heal TB
·In England, practice of “kings of Evil or the “Royal Touching”
·1546: Fracastorius describes modern theory of contagion, believed that consumption is
caused by invisible germs in the lung
·1629: Consumption leading cause of death in London, 20% of death were attributed to
consumption, peaked in 1780 and spread to different parts of Europe and NA
·1679: Franciscus D Sylvius discovers the lung nodulestubercles
·1720: Benjamin Marten, speculates that TB may be communicable from one to another
Contagionists: those who believed that diseases were transferred from other individuals
·19th century, TB spread to rest of Europe and by 1900 reached NA
·1839: termTuberculosis first used
·Mid 19th century: TB was romanticized, no signs of people sick, they were considered thin
and long hands and neck, shinning eyes, pale skin and red cheeks, signs of beauty
·1854: Dr. Brehmer, curable disease
Jean Antoine Villemin, specific microorganism as a cause of TB
·1882: Robert Koch, discovered Mycobacterium tuberculosis, developed tuberculin test,
thought it was a cure but highly lethal, we now use it to diagnose
·1895: Wihelm Konrad von Rontgen, use of radiation, Xrays as a method of diagnosing, led to
the implementation of Xrays for diagnosing
Chronic and infectious disease
Symptoms: nostalgia, depression, excessive sexual indulgence
Feeling sick, loss of appetite, loss of weight, chest pain, chronic cough
Agent: tubercle bacillus germ or Mycobacterium tuberculosis, an acid-fast bacillus
Bacilli have waxy outer layer
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