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Chapter 13

Summary for Tuberculosis of Chapter 13

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Department
Health Studies
Course Code
HLTB21H3
Professor
Caroline Barakat

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Chapter 13: Tuberculosis
History of Tuberculosis (since antiquity)
·Documented in Egypt, India and China as early as 5000, 3300, and 2300 years ago
·Typical skeletal abnormalities, TB in spine found in Andrean mummies, clear that TB was
found 5000 years ago
·2400 BC, Egyptian mummies show pathological signs from TB
·TB limited to animals in prehistoric times (8000-4000 BC), domesticating animals spread the
diseases to humans
TB epidemics likely from changes in the host population and the environment, bovine TB
could have transferred from domestication of animals to humans by milk-drinking herdsmen
·800 BC, Homer, the term itself phthisis or consumption
·460 BC, Hippocrates, identify pulmonary TB, disease was due to evil air but did not consider
it contagious, knew it was fatal
·384-322 BC, Aristotle, suggested that TB may be due to “bad and heavy breath
·Claims of royal supernatural powers during the Middle Ages (AD 500-1500), practice of
powers that could heal TB
·In England, practice of “kings of Evil or the “Royal Touching”
·1546: Fracastorius describes modern theory of contagion, believed that consumption is
caused by invisible germs in the lung
·1629: Consumption leading cause of death in London, 20% of death were attributed to
consumption, peaked in 1780 and spread to different parts of Europe and NA
·1679: Franciscus D Sylvius discovers the lung nodulestubercles
·1720: Benjamin Marten, speculates that TB may be communicable from one to another
Contagionists: those who believed that diseases were transferred from other individuals
·19th century, TB spread to rest of Europe and by 1900 reached NA
·1839: termTuberculosis first used
·Mid 19th century: TB was romanticized, no signs of people sick, they were considered thin
and long hands and neck, shinning eyes, pale skin and red cheeks, signs of beauty
·1854: Dr. Brehmer, curable disease
Jean Antoine Villemin, specific microorganism as a cause of TB
·1882: Robert Koch, discovered Mycobacterium tuberculosis, developed tuberculin test,
thought it was a cure but highly lethal, we now use it to diagnose
·1895: Wihelm Konrad von Rontgen, use of radiation, Xrays as a method of diagnosing, led to
the implementation of Xrays for diagnosing
Etiology
Chronic and infectious disease
Symptoms: nostalgia, depression, excessive sexual indulgence
Feeling sick, loss of appetite, loss of weight, chest pain, chronic cough
Agent: tubercle bacillus germ or Mycobacterium tuberculosis, an acid-fast bacillus
Bacilli have waxy outer layer
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Description
Chapter 13 TuberculosisHistory of Tuberculosis since antiquityDocumented in Egypt India and China as early as 5000 3300 and 2300 years agoTypical skeletal abnormalities TB in spine found in Andrean mummies clear that TB was found 5000 years ago2400 BC Egyptian mummies show pathological signs from TBTB limited to animals in prehistoric times 80004000 BC domesticating animals spread the diseases to humansTB epidemics likely from changes in the host population and the environment bovine TB could have transferred from domestication of animals to humans by milkdrinking herdsmen800 BC Homer the term itself phthisis or consumption460 BC Hippocrates identify pulmonary TB disease was due to evil air but did not consider it contagious knew it was fatal384322 BC Aristotle suggested that TB may be due to bad and heavy breathClaims of royal supernatural powers during the Middle Ages AD 5001500 practice of powers that could heal TBEngland practice of kings of Evil or the Royal TouchingIn modern theory of contagion believed that consumption is 1546 Fracastorius describes caused by invisible germs in the lung1629 Consumption leading cause of death in London 20 of death were attributed to consumption peaked in
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