HLTB21H3 Chapter Notes - Chapter 1: Legionella, Pus, Headache
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Health Studies 01(readings) 2012
Chapter 1 – the Nature of Plagues:
- Symptoms of pneumonia: fever, chills, headache, muscle aches, dry cough, chest pains,
shortness of breath, vomiting, diarrhea, lungs filled with fluid and pus, confusion, disorientation,
hallucinations, loss of memory.
- In 1976 Peter Turner, a world war 2 veteran attended the Legion convention in Philadelphia and
was the first to get this disease in the hotel where he was for a convention
- Legionnaires’ disease effected 221 people and 33 died from pneumonia
- No person to person spread
- Air was the probable pathway of this disease spreading and the most popular theory was that
infection resulted from aspiration (produced by choking… secretions in the mouth get past the
chocking reflex and, instead of going into the esophagus and stomach, mistakenly enter the lungs)
of bacteria (called legionella) in aerosolized water from either cooling towers or evaporative
condensers. Protective mechanisms that normally prevent aspiration are defective in older people,
smokers and people with lung disease.
- 11,000 cases documented of Legionnaires’ disease in the US annually, and estimates of 100,000
with a fatality rate of 15%
- Outbreaks have been traced to water heaters, whirlpool baths, respiratory therapy equipment, an
ultrasonic misters used in grocery stores.
- Toxic Shock Syndrome or TSS is a gender specific disease
- Mary Benton, graduate student and English composition TA at USLA was the first to get it
- Each case began with vomiting and high fever, followed by light headedness, fainting, soar
throat, and muscle aches. A day later victim got a rash and eyes become bloodshot red. 3-4 days
later victim suffered confusion, fatigue, weakness, thirst, rapid pulse, cool and moist skin, and
rapid breathing. This was followed by a sudden drop in blood pressure and shock if it remained
-She died of Staphy-lococcus aureus
- From 1979 to 1996 it effected 5296 woman generally around age 22 with a peak death rate of
- TSS was not an STD
- Was linked to the use of certain kinds of tampons(Rely) , especially those containing cross
linked carboxylmethyl celluslose with polyester foam, which provided a favourable environment
for the toxin producing S. aureus
- Elevated vaginal temperature and neutral pH were enhanced by the use of these super absorbent
- These tampon brands were removed from the market by the late 1800’s.
- SARS (severe acute respiratory syndrome) began in Feb 2003 when a Chinese physician who
worked in a hospital in Guangdong, southern china travelled to Hong Kong and became ill and
then died. His brother in law was in contact with him for only 10 hours got it 3 days later and
died 3 weeks later.
- Symptoms were fever, dry cough, sore throat, headache, and difficulty breathing
- In 4 month’s SARS lead to 8000 cases and 800 deaths in 27 countries on every continent.
- Economic cost was 100 billion$
1. These diseases may appear suddenly and with disastrous consequences…
-The germs that caused these diseases are called parasites which are unable to survive on their
own and require another living being for their nourishment.
- Parasitism is to obtain the resources needed for growth and reproduction. The parasite benefits
at the expense of their host and often end up harming the host, causing the host to get a “disease”