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Plagues and People

Health Studies
Course Code
Caroline Barakat

of 1
Chapter 13 ( Tuberculosis)
- believed that the mental activity and artistic talent were simulated by TB
- Pulmonary TB- TB of the lungs; when in the lungs can run acute course, causing extensive
destruction in a few months
- TB can affect other organs such as the lungs, intestine, larynx,
- Scrofula (pig, the swollen neck looks like a little pig)- lymph nodes on the neck
-Potts disease (after Sir Percival Pott-described the condition in 1779) - TB can cause fusion of
the vertebrae and deformation of the spine;
- Lupus Vulgaris- TB that affect the skin and kidneys
- Addison Disease- TB that destroys the function of the adrenal cortex
- Caused by Mycobacteria (same as leprosy) - 3 types: mycobacterium tuberculosis, M. leprae
and M. avium( all are human pathogens that cause TB, leprosy and pulmonary disease with
swollen glands on the neck
- M. avium- is an opportunistic infection; found in some immunocompromised people (AIDS)
Symptoms include: weight loss, fever, chills, night sweats, abdominal pains, diarrhea, weakness
- M.bovis - is a parasite of cattle; it can affect people but does so infrequent and with difficulties;
grows under conditions where the oxygen levels are low; not associated with lung disease;
hypothesized that arose from soil bacteria and human became affected by drinking milk;
- TB of the spine- associated with the M.bovis and results from a blood infection that spreds to
the spine via the lymph vessels;
- M. tuberculosis- grows best when the oxygen is plentiful and is associated with lungs; is
specific to humans and spreads through droplets of saliva and mucus;
- M.bovis and TB- are 99.5% identical and so there is still a pathogenic difference; the TB of the
lungs is more recent then that of the bones; TB followed from the M.bovis after the domestication
- King’s Evil or Royal touching ceremony- king/queen touched the sufferer, made a sign on the
cross and provided the afflicted with a gold coin
- Miliary TB- so called because of the tubercles in the lungs looked like millet seeds and spread
throughout the body via the bloodstreams
- Koch- realized that the bacillus is colorless and usually difficult to stain because of its waxy cell
wall, therefore couldn’t been seen with the light microscope; to make it visible it was required to
heat it and use a special aniline dye; later Paul Ehrlich, found that the bacilli would retain the dye
color if they were first stained with red fuchsin followed by an acid washed; they were acid-fast
- PPD (purified protein derivative)-Koch said he found the cute but it did not and it was lethal
- TB symptoms: pallor, coughing, spitting up of blood, weakness, and emaciation
-Waksman- developed methods of growing soil microbes, his student, Albert Schatz, obtained a
Mold called Streptomyces griseus from a chicken’s throat that has been eating soil; that it was an
antagonist and it limited the growth of tubercle bacilli; the antagonist it inhibits the synthesis of
the waxy cell wall and leaves the bacilli naked and unprotected
- Drugs used: Isoniazid and Rifampin