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Chapter 1&2

HLTB21H3 Chapter Notes - Chapter 1&2: Hookworm Infection, Malaria, Homo Habilis

Health Studies
Course Code
Caroline Barakat

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Chapter 1: The Nature of Plagues
Peter Turner world war II veteran attended a convention for the
American legions, and stayed at the Bellevue-Stratford hotel.
Two days later he fell sick and died from pneumonia, along with 33
other veterans. This was called Legionnaires disease
Legionnaires that spend a longer time at the hotel became ill.
The theory of that the infection resulted from aspiration of bacteria
(legionella) in either cooling towers or evaporative condensers.
Secretions in the mouth get past choking reflexes and went into the
esophagus instead.
Estimated 100,000 people with this disease with a 15% fatality rate.
Toxic shock syndrome or TSS, high fever vomiting. And is gender
TSS was linked to the use of a certain type of tampon, which caused
favorable environments for the toxin producing s. aureus.
SARS caused panic, curtailed travel and commerce, and economic
Our world is more vulnerable than it was in the past.
Parasites are a fragment of genetic material wrapped in protein, called
a virus.
Malaria and hookworm parasite cause anemia, and effects of blood loss
can cause death.
When the transmission of the parasite involves living organisms they
are called vectors.
Bacterias are prokaryotes, and assume bacilli, cocci, or spiral forms.
Protozoas are one celled eukaryotes
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Typhoid Mary carrier of typhoid disease.
For an infection to persist in a population each infected individual
must transmit the infection to at least one person.
Ro. Reproductive ratio of the disease or the multiplier of the disease
gives the number of people an infected person infects at the beginning
of an epidemic.
Ro is like the number of people that ‘it touches. (Think of the game of
The greater the number of Ro, the faster the disease will spread.
A change that increases the value of Ro will increase the number of
hosts infected.
If Ro, is greater than 1, it will lead to an ever expanding spread of the
disease. But eventually the fuel will run out, so the parasites wait for
new people, or will lead to a persistent low level of disease.
If Ro is less than 1, each infection produces less than one transmission
stage, and the parasite cannot establish itself.
High virulence parasites need a bigger population to be sustained.
Type I epidemic, population is large and the pattern shows a regular
series of outbreaks, but the disease never completely disappears.
Because the number of susceptible individuals I large enough for the
chain of transmission to be unbroken. Ro is greater than 1.
Type II, peaks of infections are discontinuous, but a regular pattern of
occurrence of cases. Temporary absences of diseases occur, Ro is less
than 1. Population of 10000 100000.
Type III, smaller communities, less than 10,000. Increased number of
cases is irregular intervals, and longer periods of no disease. The
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