25 Mar 2011
School
Department
Course
·Malaria: Italian – mal’aria (i.e. bad air), the great imitator
Tropical parasitic disease, spread by mosquitoes
·History
-Oldest disease known to mankind that continues to have huge health consequence (50% global
population at risk), found in Chinese Medical textNei Chang”
-Hippocratic corpus:
enlarged spleens, related malaria to ingestion of stagnant water – Roman fever
benign tertian (recurrent fevers every third day), quartan (fevers every fourth day)
Belief: resulting from poisonous vapours that emanate from ‘ Roman Campagna
-William Shakespeare: ague (English word for malaria)
-Exflagellation (Laveran): squiggles
first to observe black-brown malaria pigments and mobile filaments emerging from clear spherical
bodies in the red blood cells of infected blood, crescents in blood
Haemoproteus: bird parasite closely related to malaria
-Koch: fist to identify malaria parasite, argued that human malaria was caused by a mosquito bite but was
unsuccessful
-Ross and Manson: discover the in the infectious stages in the mosquito salivary glands in sparrows,
injects sporozoites (Winner)
-Giovanni Battista Grassi: report that the Anopheles claviger was the carrier of human malaria
·Epidemiology
-killed more than half the people who have ever lived on this planet (2006)
-2—3 million deaths annually, majority is among children aged 5 years or younger
-most prevalent in rural tropical areas below elevations of 1000
-Plasmodium falciparum is found mostly in the tropics (especially in Africa)
-P. f and P. vivax account for 95% of infections, vivax is mostly widely distributed
-Canada (imported cases)
·Symptoms
-Enlarged spleen, periodic fevers, headaches, chills, fever, associated with anemia and jaundice
-symptoms can develop as early as 7 days after initial exposure, fever or other symptoms 8 days
·Death
-travel from bloodstream to the liver in less than an hour, asexually reproduce, then go back to blood
stream, extensive red blood cell destruction, causing anemia, enlarged blackened spleen, liver and organ
dysfunction, cerebral malaria
·Transmission
-caused by the bite of a female Anopheles species mosquito that carries genus Plasmodium (vector =
carrier)
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