Textbook Notes (381,123)
CA (168,361)
UTSC (19,305)
HLTB21H3 (177)
Chapter

whiteplague

5 Pages
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Department
Health Studies
Course Code
HLTB21H3
Professor
Caroline Barakat

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Tuberculosis or White Plaque
History
TB has been present in the human population since antiquity
Egyptian mummies from 2400 BC show definite pathological signs of tubercular
decay
The term phthisis’ or consumption appears first in Greek literature Homer
800BC
460 BC - Hippocrates identified phthisis (pulmonary TB) as the most widespread and fatal
disease. He warned
TB was documented in Egypt, India, and China as early as 5,000, 3,300, and 2,300
years ago respectively (Daniel 2006)
Typical skeletal abnormalities, including Pott's deformities, were found in Egyptian
and Andean
Suggestion that tuberculosis was limited to animals in prehistoric times until
domestication of cattle and other animals
-TB epidemics throughout the world likely from changes in the host population and
the environment rather from the introduction of foreign pathogens
(1546) Fracastorius describes Modern Theory of Contagion; believes phthisis is caused by
invisible germs in the lungs
(1629) Consumption - leading cause of death in London approximately 20% of all deaths
(1679) Franciscus Delaboe Sylvius discovers the lung nodules, which he terms "tubercles
1720 - Benjamin Marten - suggests a version of the "germ theory" of TB, and
(1839) term "tuberculosis" first used
(1854) Dr. Hermann Brehmer - Doctoral Dissertation- Tuberculosis is a Curable Disease”-
institution in Gorbersdorf introduction of the sanatorium in Silesia, Germany
in sanatorium the patients had to rest, be exposed to fresh air, good nutrition and isolation
Treatment -specializing in diagnosis and recovery of patients
1854 - Jean-Antoine Villemin -postulated a specific microorganism as the cause of the
disease
1882 Dr. Robert Koch - Koch-German physician and scientist - discovery of
Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the bacterium that causes tuberculosis (TB)
1895 - Wilhelm Konrad
1920 1950: because we learned a lot more on TB mass screening programs were
implemented based on: Tuberculin and X-rays
Etiology
Agent - tubercle bacillus germ, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, an acid-fast bacillus (after
being treated with certain dyes is not decolorized on subsequent treatment with a mineral
acid)
3 main types of the human bacillus
Type 1 found in India; least virulent
Type A Africa, China, Japan, Europe, North America
Type B Exclusively in Europe and North America
Forms of Tuberculosis
Several animal forms of the bacillus
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Only the bovine types can infect humans ingested through digestive tract (stomach) via
milk and milk products
some can have TB and not even know it because it can be in the de-active form
May lead to pulmonary TB (most common form)
Miliary tuberculosis acute form that forms grain-like tubercles in almost every organ of
the body
Commonly affects infants and young
The tubercle bacillus germ is contracted and starts to affect the lungs but can then spread
to other parts of the body, often including the central nervous system, bones and joints
What happens when Tuberculosis enters the body?
In human body, tubercle bacilli can remain viable throughout the hosts lifetime
Infection can remain dormant until resistance fails
Can cause active disease
Indefinite and variable incubation period
Mode of Transmission
a person may contract pulmonary tuberculosis from inhaling droplets from a cough or
asneeze by an infected person
People with TB infection do not look or feel sick, cannot spread the germ to others
Only people who are sick with TB in their lungs are infectious
Left untreated, each person with active TB will infect 10-15 people every year
TB in other parts of the body such as the kidneys or spine, cannot be easily spread to other
people
No acquired resistance to tubercle bacillus
Spread through the air by coughs or sneezes
Each droplet nuclei (airborne particles)
rate of TB is very powerful and silent
Epidemiology
One-third of the worlds population is infected with the TB bacillus
Each year, 30 M are infected; of these, 10 M will develop active disease
There are almost 2 million TB-related deaths world wide every year
most of the developing countries suffer a lot from DP
Highest incident rates
Highest incidences - Africa, Asia, and Latin America with the lowest gross national
products.
WHO estimates - ten million people get TB every year, of whom 95% live in developing
countries
Rates increased since the mid-1980s
1993 - WHO declares the disease a "global emergency".
2007 - WHO announces that the epidemic had leveled off after having peaked in 2004 and
holds steady through 2005.
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Description
Tuberculosis or White Plaque History TB has been present in the human population since antiquity Egyptian mummies from 2400 BC show definite pathological signs of tubercular decay The term phthisis or consumption appears first in Greek literature Homer 800BC 460 BC - Hippocrates identified phthisis (pulmonary TB) as the most widespread and fatal disease. He warned TB was documented in Egypt, India, and China as early as 5,000, 3,300, and 2,300 years ago respectively (Daniel 2006) Typical skeletal abnormalities, including Potts deformities, were found in Egyptian and Andean Suggestion that tuberculosis was limited to animals in prehistoric times until domestication of cattle and other animals -TB epidemics throughout the world likely from changes in the host population and the environment rather from the introduction of foreign pathogens (1546) Fracastorius describes Modern Theory of Contagion; believes phthisis is caused by invisible germs in the lungs (1629) Consumption - leading cause of death in London approximately 20% of all deaths (1679) Franciscus Delaboe Sylvius discovers the lung nodules, which he terms tubercles 1720 - Benjamin Marten - suggests a version of the germ theory of TB, and (1839) term tuberculosis first used (1854) Dr. Hermann Brehmer - Doctoral Dissertation- Tuberculosis is a Curable Disease- institution in Gorbersdorf introduction of the sanatorium in Silesia, Germany in sanatorium the patients had to rest, be exposed to fresh air, good nutrition and isolation Treatment -specializing in diagnosis and recovery of patients 1854 - Jean-Antoine Villemin -postulated a specific microorganism as the cause of the disease 1882 Dr. Robert Koch - Koch-German physician and scientist - discovery of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the bacterium that causes tuberculosis (TB) 1895 - Wilhelm Konrad 1920 1950: because we learned a lot more on TB mass screening programs were implemented based on: Tuberculin and X-rays Etiology Agent - tubercle bacillus germ, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, an acid-fast bacillus (after being treated with certain dyes is not decolorized on subsequent treatment with a mineral acid) 3 main types of the human bacillus Type 1 found in India; least virulent Type A Africa, China, Japan, Europe, North America Type B Exclusively in Europe and North America Forms of Tuberculosis Several animal forms of the bacillus www.notesolution.com
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