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CA (168,340)
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HLTB21H3 (177)
Chapter

Cholera (Chart-form with labels as indicated in the review)

2 Pages
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Department
Health Studies
Course Code
HLTB21H3
Professor
Caroline Barakat

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CHOLERA: Historical context (3), epidemiology, science contributions (2), transmission, etiology (2), symptoms (2), causes, susceptibility,
Epidemiology & EtiologyHistorical Context Transmission Causes
- The germ that causes cholera is
known as Vibrio Cholerae
discovered by Robert Koch
- water- or food-borne disease that
does not manifest itself until the
germ” enters the human
digestive tract
- Bacteria goes dormant and
enters into a sporelike stage when
their reproductive stage isnt
favoured.
- Incubation period-few hours to 5
days.
- V. cholerae must be infected by
two other viruses:
1) one has a gene that codes
for the cholera toxin
2) one has a gene that codes for
the receptor that allows the toxin-
coding virus to enter the
bacterium
- Miasmatists -- Pettenkofer believed
that x (a factor in the air), along
with factor y was required for the
disease to emerge, which he found in
the soil. These two factors gave rise
to z (a miasma) this is what
caused cholera.
- Pettenkofer believed that the
disease rose from spoilage and
fermentation, and denied the germ
theory.
- Contagionists -- Robert Koch and
believed that cholera was based on
the microbe vibrio
- In AD 900, Rhazes said the disease
was incurable.
- The history of cholera from 1816-
1923 is usually described as the
history of pandemics.
- There were 7 pandemics over the
years
- Indirect transmission: oral-fecal
route -- by eating vibrio-contaminated
food and bathing in (an swallowing)
contaminated water
- Urbanization
- industrialization
- population growth
- wastewater effluents
- residential crowding
- privies
- closed working
environments
- lack of hygiene
Science ContributionsSymptomsSusceptibility
- John Snow (1813-1858) father
of modern epidemiology
- Grand Experiment
Investigation of Londons Broad
Street pump outbreak he
compared water-Bourne cholera
cases in two regions of the city
-
- severe diarrhea, producing rice
water stools.--> results in loss of
water and electrolytes leading to
shock if untreated
- vomiting, convulsions, muscle
cramps
- stomach gastric juice is lethal to v.
cholera therefore low stomach
acidity implies high susceptibility to
cholera
- people with type O blood are more
susceptible to cholera than other blood
groups (reason unknown)
- Those living in regions where cholera
is endemic show some acquired
immunity.
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Description
CHOLERA: Historical context (3), epidemiology, science contributions (2), transmission, etiology (2), symptoms (2), causes, susceptibility, Epidemiology & Etiology Historical Context Transmission Causes - The germ that causes cholera is - Miasmatists -- Pettenkofer believed - Indirect transmission: oral-fecal - Urbanization known as Vibrio Cholerae that “x” (a factor in the air), along route -- by eating vibrio-contaminated - industrialization with factor “y” was required for the discovered by Robert Koch food and bathing in (an swallowing) - population growth - water- or food-borne disease that disease to emerge, which he found in contaminated water - wastewater effluents does not manifest itself until the the soil. These two factors gave rise - residential crowding “germ” enters the human to “z” (a miasma) – this is what - privies digestive tract caused cholera. - closed working - Bacteria goes dormant and - Pettenkofer believed that the environments enters into a sporelike stage when disease rose from spoilage and - lack of hygiene their reproductive stage isn’t fermentation, and denied the germ favoured. theory. - Incubation period-few hours to 5 - Contagionists -- Robert Koch and days. believed that cholera was based on - V. c
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