Textbook Notes (381,081)
CA (168,341)
UTSC (19,304)
HLTB21H3 (177)
Chapter

Smallpox (Chart-form with labels as indicated in the review)

2 Pages
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Department
Health Studies
Course Code
HLTB21H3
Professor
Caroline Barakat

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SMALLPOX: Historical context, science contributions, impact on populations, related etiology, epidemiology, transmission, contributors of knowledge (2),
vaccination-related
Historical Context Related etiology & epidemiologyImpact on populationsContributors of
knowledge
- the disease preceded Cortes
arrival in Mexico (1520)
- among the crew was a smallpox
infected individual
- smallpox was the reason that
the Aztecs did not pursue the
demoralized Spaniards
- Smallpox made Pizarros
success in South America
possible.
-arrived in Peru by land in 1526,
killing much of the Inca
population
- evidence found in Egyptian
mummies dated 1570-1080 BC
- Smallpox along with malaria
has contributed to the decline of
the Roman Empire.
- The Huns were infected in
either Persia or India.
- small pox contributed to the
settlement of North America by
the French English
- smallpox is a virus
- has about 200 genes, 35 of which are believed
to be involved in virulence.
- there are two pathologic varieties of the
smallpox virus:
1) Variola Major the deadlier form,
frequently killed up to 25% of its victims
2) Variola Minor milder pathogen,
fatality rate of ~2%
- no animal reserves (no a zoonotic disease)
- Can exist in a population as long as there are
susceptible humans minimum 100,000 people.
- R0 value between 5-10
- spreads more rapidly during the winter and
dry season
- mortality high amongst infants and through
all trimesters of pregnancy
- cowpox disease caused by variola vaccinae
(95% identical to variola major)
- Smallpox was a selective
diseaseonly the Aztecs died.
- 3 million Amerindians were
killed
- over the centuries, it killed 300
million people
- spread from West to China
- smallpox was probably
endemic in the more densely
populated parts of Eurasia, from
Spain to Japan, as well as in the
African countries bordering the
Mediterranean sea.
- the 18th century in Europe has
been called the age of powder
and patches because
pockmarks were so common
beauty patch
- In April 1721, there was a
smallpox outbreak in Boston
(15% fatality)
- Ahrun (a Christian
priest) and Al-Razi
(a Persian
physician)
differentiated
smallpox from
measles.
- Mary Pierpont
tested inoculation
on her son,
daughter, and
convinced the queen
royal
experiment (after
inoculating her six
prisoners)
Science ContributionsSymptomsTransmission
- Inoculation was practised to
help eradicate small pox.
- Secretions from an infected
individual would be inoculated
into the individual to be
- Around the 9th day, the first symptoms appear:
headache, fever, chills, nausea, muscle ache, and
sometimes convulsions.
- A few days later, a characteristic rash appears.
- The individual is infectious a day before the rash
- suspected that humans acquired the infectious
agent from one of the pox-like diseases of
domesticated animals of Asia or Africa (sometimes
after 10,000 BC)
- Small pox virus enters the body through droplet
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Description
SMALLPOX: Historical context, science contributions, impact on populations, related etiology, epidemiology, transmission, contributors of knowledge (2), vaccination-related Historical Context Related etiology & epidemiology Impact on populations Contributors of knowledge - the disease preceded Cortes - smallpox is a virus - Smallpox was a selective - Ahrun (a Christian arrival in Mexico (1520) - has about 200 genes, 35 of which are believed diseaseonly the Aztecs died. priest) and Al-Razi - among the crew was a smallpox to be involved in virulence. - 3 million Amerindians were (a Persian infected individual - there are two pathologic varieties of the killed physician) - smallpox was the reason that smallpox virus: - over the centuries, it killed 300differentiated the Aztecs did not pursue the 1) Variola Major the deadlier form, million people smallpox from demoralized Spaniards frequently killed up to 25% of its victims - spread from West to China measles. - Smallpox made Pizarros 2) Variola Minor milder pathogen, - smallpox was probably - Mary Pierpont success in South America fatality rate of ~2% endemic in the more densely tested inoculation possible. - no animal reserves (no a zoonotic disease) populated parts of Eurasia, from on her son, -arrived in Peru by land in 1526, - Can exist in a population as long as there are Spain to Japan, as well as in the daughter, and killing much of the Inca susceptible humans minimum 100,000 people. Afric
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