Textbook Notes (378,344)
CA (167,126)
UTSC (19,207)
HLTB21H3 (177)
Chapter

Measles (Chart-form with labels as indicated in the review)

2 Pages
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Department
Health Studies
Course Code
HLTB21H3
Professor
Caroline Barakat

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MEASLES
Etiology-agent & Epidemiologytransmission Contributions/contribution of
knowledge
- caused by a virus known as
Morbillivirus
- family: paramyxoviridae
- genus: morbillivirus
- infection of the respiratory system
- incubation period 7 to 14 days
- period of communicability is 4 days
before and 4 days after the rash
appears
- highly contagious
- virus can survive in micro-droplets in
the air
- humans are the only hosts
- infants receive antibodies
transplacentally
- Pre-vaccine period: approx. 130M
cases and 7-8M deaths annually
- Virus still affects 50 M people
annually and causes more than 1M
deaths
- primarily an endemic disease
- mortality is highest among very
young and very old people
- direct contact from nose and throat
- indirect contact through freshly soiled articles
and airborne transmission
- Peter Panum (1820-1885) was
sent by the Danish government to
investigate an epidemic in Faeroe
Isles in 1846 he conducted the
first epidemiological study
- He established 4 important
facts:
(1) Rash appears 12-14 days after
contact with an infected person
(2) Infectivity is greatest 3-4 days
before the rash appears
(3) Contagious nature of disease
respiratory route of transmission
(4) Life-long immunity
Stages of disease Historical contextVaccine-related
(1) Prodromal Stage:
- fever and the 3 Cs (coryza (head
cold), cough, and conjunctivitis (red
eyes))
- photophobia
- inflammation of the eyes outer
membrane
(2) Enanthem stage:
- Kopliks spots appear in the mouth
- sore throat develops
- Rhazes (900 AD) clinically separated smallpox
and measles
- He believed that both proceeded from the same
cause
- It was believed that the red rash manifested
through measles was a representation of the
mothers menstrual blood. (later rejected)
- measles is also known as rubella, hard measles,
red measles, morbilli, and hasbah
- Thomas Sydenham (1670) observed clinical
- Initially, there were two types of
vaccines developed:
(1) Inactivated virus (KMV)
(2) Weakened (attenuated) virus
- KMV vaccine was not effective
discontinued in 1967
- Weakened vaccine modified
several times
- Vaccine is given in combination
with mumps and rubella (MMR)
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Description
MEASLES Etiology-agent & Epidemiology transmission Contributionscontribution of knowledge - caused by a virus known as - direct contact from nose and throat - Peter Panum (1820-1885) was Morbillivirus - indirect contact through freshly soiled articles sent by the Danish government to - family: paramyxoviridae and airborne transmission investigate an epidemic in Faeroe - genus: morbillivirus Isles in 1846 he conducted the - infection of the respiratory system first epidemiological study - incubation period 7 to 14 days - He established 4 important - period of communicability is 4 days facts: before and 4 days after the rash (1) Rash appears 12-14 days after appears contact with an infected person - highly contagious (2) Infectivity is greatest 3-4 days - virus can survive in micro-droplets in before the rash appears the air (3) Contagious nature of disease - humans are the only hosts
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