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Malaria (Chart-form with labels as indicated in the review)

1 pages110 viewsWinter 2011

Health Studies
Course Code
Caroline Barakat

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MALARIA: Etiology (3), transmission (2), treatment, epidemiology and immunity
ImmunityEtiology (3) &
EpidemiologyTransmission (2)Treatment
- Natural resistance to malaria
include people who have sickle
cell anemia (due to frequencies in
the blood)
- People who have a negative
Duffy factor (based on the rhesus
antigen in the blood) are immune
to vivrax malaria
- Acquired immunity is developed
through repeat exposure and
survival of several attacks of
- parasite known as
Plasmodium causes malaria
- 4 types of human malarias:
P. falciparum (mostly found in
the tropics), P. vivrax, P.ovale,
and P. malariae.
- The mosquito injects
sporozites from her salivary
glands that travel to the liver
via the bloodstream, and enter
the liver cells.
- The sporozites invade the
- P. falciparum accounts for
95% of deaths
- P. vivrax and P. ovale
malarias have the capacity to
relapse called recurrence.
- killed more than half the
people who have ever lived on
this planet
Every 10-30 seconds, a person
dies of malaria.
-300-500M cases of malaria
each year and 2-3M deaths.
- considered an imported
disease in Canada
- estimated that only 30-50%
of cases are reported to public
health agencies
- through the bite of an infected Anopheles
(female mosquitos)
- factors necessary for the transmission of
the mosquito vector include: the incidence of
infections in the human population, the
suitability of the local anopheline population
density, breeding and biting habits, the
availability of susceptible or nonimmune
hosts, climatic conditions, and the local
geographic and hydro-geographic conditions
- infected blood by blood transfusion or
through contaminated needles are less
common ways
- first drug Peruvian
tree of cinchona bark
- quinine
- treatment depends on
several factors: the
species, severity of
infection, patter of drug
resistance, accompanying
illness of condition, and
- most drugs are active
against the parasite
forms in the blood
- problems: (1) anti-
malarial drug resistance,
(2) cost of drugs, (3)
reluctance to make the
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