Textbook Notes (381,222)
CA (168,408)
UTSC (19,325)
HLTB21H3 (177)
Chapter

HIV/Influenza (Chart-form with labels as indicated in the review)

2 Pages
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Department
Health Studies
Course Code
HLTB21H3
Professor
Caroline Barakat

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Disease Etiology & EpidemiologyTranmission Treatment
HIV/AIDS- AIDS afflicts 15M people worldwide and
occurs in developed and less developed
countries
- In an infected population, an individual will
have 10-50M HIV particles and will cause
AIDS in 5-10 years.
- one of the characteristics of an HIV
infection is depletion of T4 cells.
- The HIV virus attacks the T-lymphocytes
and weakens the immune system
- known as a retrovirus reverse
transcriptase
- two primary strains: (1) HIV-1: found
throughout the world. (2) HIV-2: found
primarily in West Africa.
- HIV is an infectious disease, but not
a very contagious one not a vector-
borne disease
- HIV is principally found in the
secretions and body fluids of infected
individuals.
- most infectious sources include
blood, breast milk, vaginal secretions,
and semen
- viruses are found both free and
inside T-lymphocytes
- a tear or lesion in the skin or
mucous membranes must occur for
infected fluid to initiate an infection.
- infection may result from the
injection of infected blood, organ
transplants, virus can also cross the
placenta
- unprotected sexual intercoursethe
most dangerous is anal intercourse:
the rectal area is susceptible to rips
and tears
- Patterns of transmission: (1)
Predominantly among homosexual
men, drug users. (2) Heterosexual sex,
prostitution, blood transfusions,
unsterile injections, prenatally.
- Drug treatmemt and vaccination
developed to control the infection.
- There is still no drug that will cure
the HIV infection.
- A few drugs have been shown to be
effective in slowing down the spread
of symptoms and prolonging life:
AZT (azidothymidine or zidovudine)
delays the onset of AIDS by
inhibiting viral multiplication.
- nucleoside analogs or reverse
transcription inhibitors (also to slow
down multiplication)
- protease inhibitors are also used
- sexual abstinence (or using a
condom), maintaining a
monogamous relationship, and
changing risky behaviour are all
ways to prevent and control
HIV/AIDS.
- Triple therapy, called HAART
(highly active anti-retroviral
therapy) includes a protease
inhibitor, a nucleoside reverse
transcriptase inhibitor, and a
nonnucleoside reverse transcription
inhibitor.
- fusion inhibitors: interferes with
ability to enter into cells
Influenza- 3 types of influenza virus: virus A (most
virulent), B, and C
- new and virulent flu strains are produced
form the effects of 2 surface proteins: (1)
Hemmagglutinin (H) critical to virus entry
into cell/15 different kinds. (2)
Neuraminidase (N) allows the virus to leave
- Repiratory Droplets coughing,
sneezing, or talking. (each droplet
contains 50,000-500,000 virus
particles)
- Direct Contact from the hands of
an infected person
- Indirest Contact by touching
- flu shot vaccination
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Description
Disease Etiology & Epidemiology Tranmission Treatment HIVAIDS - AIDS afflicts 15M people worldwide and - HIV is an infectious disease, but not - Drug treatmemt and vaccination occurs in developed and less developed a very contagious one not a vector- developed to control the infection. countries borne disease - There is still no drug that will cure - In an infected population, an individual will - HIV is principally found in the the HIV infection. have 10-50M HIV particles and will cause secretions and body fluids of infected - A few drugs have been shown to be AIDS in 5-10 years. individuals. effective in slowing down the spread - one of the characteristics of an HIV - most infectious sources include of symptoms and prolonging life: infection is depletion of T4 cells. blood, breast milk, vaginal secretions, AZT (azidothymidine or zidovudine) - The HIV virus attacks the T-lymphocytes and semen delays the onset of AIDS by and weakens the immune system - viruses are found both free and inhibiting viral multiplication. - known as a retrovirus reverse inside T-lymphocytes - nucleoside analogs or reverse transcriptase - a tear or lesion in the skin or transcription inhibitors (also to slow - two primary strains: (1) HIV-1: found mucous membranes must occur for down multiplication) throughout the world. (2) HIV-2: found infected fluid to initiate an infection. - protease inhibitors are also used primarily in West Africa. - infection may result from the - sexual abstinence (or using a injection of infected blood, organ condom), maintaining a transplants, virus can also cr
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