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HLTB21H3 Chapter Notes -Measles Vaccine, Paramyxoviridae, Rhinitis


Department
Health Studies
Course Code
HLTB21H3
Professor
Caroline Barakat

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Prashanthan Nov/01/2012
Measles (Rubella)
Course Reader (Fall 2012)
A.K.A. rubeola, hard measles, red measles, 9-day measles, morbilli
Acute, viral infectious disease
Mostly affects children
Characterized by fever and typical red rash combined with cough, coryza or conjunctivitis
Vaccines have been made
Etiology and Epidemiology
Caused by virus
o Genus : Moribillivirus
o Family : Paramyxoviridae
Cannot survive on surface, but can survive in microdroplets
Highly contagious via nose, mouth, direct contact
Humans are the only reservoirs
Period of communicability: From slightly before prodromal phase until 4 days after rash forms
Incubation period from exposure to fever : ~10 days
Incubation period from exposure to rash : ~14 days
Areas with low/no vaccination have epidemics every 2-5 yrs
Distribution and Incidence
50 million cases and 1.5 million deaths / year in developing countries
Immunology
Infants usually have passive immunity due to maternal antibodies
o Protects infant fro 6-9months depending on amount of antibodies acquired
Measles infection induces lifelong immunity
Single dose of measles vaccine confers long-term (possibly lifelong) immunity
Clinical Manifestations and Pathology
Prodromal Phase
o Fever
o Cough, coryza, conjunctivitis
o Small whitish specks on reddened areas of mucosal lining (Koplik’s Spots)
o Lasts for 3-7 days until reddish rash appears
First appears on head, then spreads down body and towards limbs which lasts
for 4-7 days
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